Prelims Facts


Prelims fact is an exclusive column to assist the students, in preparation for subject wise prelims facts and data this section not only helps in UPSC prelims in interview but also helps in various public service commission examination like OAS UPPCS UKPCS Rajasthan PCS Haryana PCS

United Nations Human Rights Council

Overview: At the 55th Human Rights Council of the United Nations, India exercised its 'Right to Reply' for a staunch response to Turkey and Pakistan for the mention of Jammu and Kashmir on the platform. About United Nations Human Rights Council: It is an intergovernmental body within the United Nations whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world. It

International Big Cat Alliance

Overview: The Union Cabinet formally announced the establishment of International Big Cat Alliance (IBCA) with one-time budgetary support of Rs 150 crore from the central government until 2028. About International Big Cat Alliance: It is an initiative launched by the Prime Minister of India in April 2023 in Mysuru commemorating the 50th anniversary of Project Tiger. The objective of

Juice jacking

Overview: Recently, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has issued a cautionary message to mobile phone users about juice jacking. About Juice jacking: The term “juice jacking” was first coined in 2011 by investigative journalist Brian Krebs. It is a form of cyberattack where a public USB charging port is tampered with and infected using hardware and software changes to steal d

A recent study has claimed that BioTRIG, a new waste management technology could help rural Indians.

About BioTRIG: It is a new waste management technology based on the pyrolysis system. It works by sealing the waste inside an oxygen-free chamber and heating it above 400 degrees Celsius. Useful chemicals are produced in the process. In the study, the researchers outlined that three products of pyrolysis — bio-oil, syngas and biochar fertilizer — could help rural Indians live

Jacaranda Bloom

Overview: The early onset bloom of jacaranda set off alarm bells among residents and scientists in Mexico City. About Jacaranda Bloom: It’s also known by its synonym Jacaranda acutifolia. It is a deciduous tree, Jacaranda mimosifolia comes from the Bignoniaceae family. Blue jacaranda is native of Brazil and North West Argentina. These are hardy trees that grow well in tropical

Vikramaditya Vedic Clock

Overview: The Prime Minister recently inaugurated the Vikramaditya Vedic Clock, which is mounted on an 85-foot tower within Jantar Mantar in Ujjain. About Vikramaditya Vedic Clock: It is the world’s first 'Vedic Clock', designed to display time according to the ancient Indian traditional Panchang (time calculation system). It has been positioned on an 85-foot tower with

What is Melanochlamys Droupadi

Overview: Researchers of the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) recently discovered a new species of head-shield sea slug from Odisha and the West Bengal coast named ‘Melanochlamys Droupadi’. About Melanochlamys Droupadi It is a new marine species of head-shield sea slug with ruby red spot. This species belonging to Melanochlamys genus was discovered from Digha of West Beng

What is the Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB)

Overview: In a coordinated operation at sea, the Indian Navy and the Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) recently apprehended a suspicious vessel carrying almost 3300 Kgs of contraband. About Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB): The NCB was created in March 1986 in terms of Section 4(3) of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985, which envisages a Central Authority for the purpos

What is Doomsday Glacier

Overview: Unveiling new details about Antarctica's "Doomsday Glacier", scientists have revealed that the Thwaites Glacier has been losing ice since the 1940s. About Doomsday Glacier: Thwaites Glacier, also known as the “Doomsday Glacier,” is located in the remote Amundsen Sea in West Antarctica. It’s a wide and fast-flowing glacier, roughly the size of F

What is a Very Short-Range Air Defence System (VSHORADS)

Overview: The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) successfully conducted two flight tests of the Very Short-Range Air Defence System (VSHORADS) missile. About Very Short-Range Air Defence System (VSHORADS) VSHORADS is a fourth-generation Man Portable Air Defence System (MANPAD) specially designed to counter low-altitude aerial threats over short distances. These ar

What is Roen olmi

Overview: Two researchers in Goa have said that they synthesised gold nanoparticles from a wild mushroom species that is widely eaten as a delicacy in the coastal state. About Roen olmi It is a mushroom of the Termitomyces species. It grows on termite hills and is locally known as ‘roen olmi’ in Goa. It is an edible wild mushroom popular among Goans and consumed during t

Hemophilia A

Overview: Recently, the Union Science and Technology Minister told that India has conducted the first human clinical trial of gene therapy for ‘haemophilia A’ at Christian Medical College – Vellore. About Hemophilia A It is a genetic disorder that affects the body’s ability to form blood clots. It is a rare disorder in which the blood doesn't clot in the typ

What is Gene therapy

It is a technique that modifies a person’s genes to treat or cure disease. Gene therapies can work by several mechanisms: Replacing a disease-causing gene with a healthy copy of the gene   Inactivating a disease-causing gene that is not functioning properly Introducing a new or modified gene into the body to help treat a disease Gene therapy products are being studied to

Kulasekarapattinam Spaceport

Overview: The Prime Minister recently laid the foundation stone for a new spaceport at Kulasekarapattinam in southern Tamil Nadu. About Kulasekarapattinam Spaceport It is a new spaceport coming up at Kulasekarapattinam, a coastal hamlet near the temple town of Tiruchendur in Thoothukudi district in southern Tamil Nadu. It will be second after the space agency’s existing Satish

What is Neolithic Period

Overview: Researchers recently unearthed an ancient burial site of a child with a pot beside it likely dating back to the neolithic period, at Chettimedu Pathur near Chennai. About Neolithic Period: The Neolithic Period, also called the New Stone Age, is the final stage of cultural evolution or technological development among prehistoric humans. The term Neolithic is most frequently

What is Article 25 of the Indian Constitution?

Overview: The Kerala High Court recently observed that the fundamental right under Article 25 of the Constitution to enter a temple for worship does not give the right to any member of the Hindu community to perform the role of Archakas (priests). About Article 25 of Indian Constitution Article 25 says that all persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right to freel

Good governance day

Context: Good Governance Day is being celebrated on the birth anniversary of former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee on 25th December. Origin: 2014 Governance involves decision-making and effective implementation. Good Governance occurs when power is utilized responsibly to foster a nation's development. This concept dates back to ancient times, with figures like Chanakya discu

Forex reserves

Context: Recently, Forex reserves jumped $2.816 billion to $606.859 billion. About forex reserves Foreign Exchange Reserves refer to assets kept in reserve by a central bank, comprising foreign currencies such as bonds, treasury bills, and government securities. These reserves, expressed in the US dollar, the international standard, are managed by the RBI, serving as the cust

Maulana Azad Education Foundation (MAEF)

Overview The Ministry of Minority Affairs recently ordered the closure of the Maulana Azad Education Foundation (MAEF) About Maulana Azad Education Foundation (MAEF) MAEF was established on the occasion of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad's birth centenary celebrations. The Foundation is a voluntary, non-political, non-profit making social service organization. It was registered under th

Mukhyamantri Gramin Solar Street Light Scheme

The Mukhyamantri Gramin Solar Street Light Yojana is a scheme that aims to provide street lights in villages and cities in Bihar. The scheme is expected to be completed by March 2023 but not implemented in some areas till now.

Syndiniales & Corallicolids

The international team of researchers collected samples of corals from across the Mediterranean Sea and analysed the bacteria that live with the corals. The researchers found that the presence of a group of parasitic single-celled organisms called Syndiniales made it more likely that a coral could survive heat stress. The presence of Corallicolids, a group of single-c

India's stock market

India overtakes Hong Kong to become 4th-largest stock market recently. India's stock market capitalization crossed USD 4 trillion for the first time, with about half of that reportedly coming in the past 4 years. The top 3 stock markets are the U.S., China, and Japan.

Naiyandi Melam

A naiyandi melam is a type of percussion instrument that is unique to Tamil Nadu, Kerala and parts of South India. It is performed by artistes of different communities. The word, naiyandi, means making fun. Naiyandi melam follows a set of tunes, beginning with ‘thooku’.

Warm vaccine for COVID-19

Context: A team of scientists from IISc has completed pre-clinical trials and is now gearing up for human testing of the heat-tolerant Covid-19 vaccine About: The Indian Institute of Science (IISc) has developed a heat-tolerant vaccine called RS2 against COVID-19, which can be stored at high temperatures for extended periods of time, making it easier to transport and distribute to re

Pinanga Subterranea

Pinanga subterranea is a species of palm tree native to Borneo. It's the 1st known species of palm to flower and fruit almost exclusively underground. This rare phenomenon has only been recorded in one other plant group, the orchid Rhizanthella.

Peregrine Lunar Lander

The Peregrine Lunar Lander, also known as Peregrine Mission One, is a lunar lander built by Astrobotic Technology, U.S. It was launched recently carrying payloads for NASA's Commercial Lunar Payload Services program.

International Education Day

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) declared January 24 as the International Day of Education in 2018. The day celebrates the role of education in peace and development and aims to raise awareness of the value and impact of quality education. In 2024, UNESCO is focusing on promoting anti-racist guidelines and addressing racism in textbooks with the th

Religious processions

The Supreme Court ruled that the concentration of a religious community in a particular area is not a valid reason to deny permission to another religious community to hold events or prayer meetings. The court also ruled that religious processions cannot be rejected based on religious grounds.

Kinmen Island

Context: Presidential elections are scheduled in Taiwan on 13th January in which Kinmen residents are preparing to vote. About: Governance: Kinmen, also known as Quemoy, comprises a cluster of islands under the jurisdiction of Taiwan. Location in Relation to China: Geographical Position: Positioned on the southeastern coast of the People’s Republic of China

Task Force To Resolve Trade Barrier

Context: The Ministry of Commerce and Industry has set up a task force to identify and resolve trade barriers being faced by foreign exporters. News: Indian exports encounter significant barriers in certain products such as chillies, tea, basmati rice, milk, and poultry in the European Union, sesame seeds and apparel in Japan, and food, meat, fish, dairy, and industrial pro

Vibrant Gujarat Global Summit

Context: Prime Minister of India has inaugurated Vibrant Gujarat Global Summit 2024 at Mahatma Mandir, Gandhinagar. About: Vibrant Gujarat Global Summit, conceptualised in 2003 under the visionary leadership of the then Chief Minister Shri Narendra Modi, has today evolved as one of the most reputed global forums for business collaboration, knowledge sharing and strategic partnerships for

Operation AMRITH

The Kerala Drug Control Department launched Operation Amrith (AMRITH - Anti Microbial Resistance Intervention for Total Health) recently. It is a strategy launched to combat antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The initiative aims to reduce the use of antibiotics by conducting surprise raids on retail medical shops to detect the sale of antibiotics with

Parakram Diwas

PM to participate in programme marking Parakram Diwas (Day of Valor) at Red Fort. The programme will commemorate the legacy of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose and the Azad Hind Fauj. January 23, 2024 was commemorated as the 126th birth anniversary of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose.


Exercise Cyclone is a joint military exercise between India and Egypt. The exercise aims to strengthen the bond between the two armies and develop bilateral military cooperation. The exercise focuses on desert operations and includes 3 phases.

Modernization of Paradip Fishing Harbour

Context: Recently, the Union Minister laid the foundation stone for the Modernisation of Paradip Fishing Harbour. News: Paradip Fishing Harbour is poised for a transformation as the Central Government greenlights the Modernisation and Upgradation project, receiving 100% central financial assistance under the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY). The Paradip Port Authority

Biswanath Ghat

Biswanath Ghat is a village in Assam, located on the banks of the Brahmaputra River and is known as "Gupta Kashi". The name "Gupta Kashi" is a comparison to Kashi during the Gupta Empire era. The village is named after the ancient Biswanath temple, a prominent religious site for centuries. Biswanath Ghat is also known for its ghat, island, and temple built by t


Chinese scientists recently announced that they have cloned a Rhesus monkey named ReTro that lived to adulthood. The scientists created ReTro using a slightly modified version to create Dolly the Sheep and other mammals like the long-tailed macaque, which was the first primate to be cloned.

Wings India 2024

Wings India 2024 is a civil aviation event that took place at Begumpet Airport in Hyderabad, India. This event is organized by the Ministry of Civil Aviation, AAI, and FICCI. The event celebrated India's status as the world's third-largest domestic aviation market.

Post Payments Bank

Context: India Post Payments Bank enter into MoU with Hindustan Zinc to offer financial inclusion services to its CSR beneficiaries. Significance of the MOU: The collaboration will ensure in creating a lasting impact on the lives of community beneficiaries around Hindustan Zinc’s operational areas.  The key services provided by the IPPB will ensure Financial Inclusion and ens

Bharat stage emission standards

Context: The Supreme Court Thursday asked the Centre to formulate a policy to phase out heavy-duty diesel vehicles and to replace them with BSVI vehicles. News: The Supreme Court directed the Centre to formulate a policy within six months regarding the use of the Inland Container Depot (ICD) at Tughlaqabad, Delhi, to address air pollution concerns. The order followed a plea by the Conta

Zanskar River

The Zanskar River is a tributary of the Indus River. It originates from the Doda and Lungnak rivers, and flows entirely within Ladakh. The Zanskar River's headwaters are known as the Tsarap Chu, and originate from the snows of the Himalayas. The river's entire catchment area is formed by glaciers.

Veerbhadra Temple

The temple is dedicated to the deity Veerabhadra, the fiery form of Lord Shiva. The temple is closely associated with the Ramayana. Top of Form It was built during the 16th century, the architectural features of the temple are in the Vijayanagara style with profusion of carvings and paintings. The Veerabhadra Swamy temple and the Nandi statue in Lepakshi, India w

Boeing India Engineering and Technology Centre (BIETC)

Prime Minister inaugurated aircraft manufacturing giant Boeing’s largest investment facility outside the USA in Bengaluru recently. It aims to be a cornerstone for partnership with the vibrant startup, private and government ecosystem in the country. PM will also launch the Boeing Sukanya Program that aims to support the entry of more girl children from across I

Swachh Survekshan 2023

Context: The President of India, Smt. Droupadi Murmu conferred Swachh Survekshan awards 2023 at Bharat Mandapam, New Delhi hosted by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA).  News: 13 awardees received felicitations under categories of Clean Cities, Cleanest Cantonment, SafaiMitra Suraksha, Ganga Towns and Best Performing State were given away. This year the cleanest

Timor-Leste and Mozambique

Context: The Prime Minister held bilateral meetings with the President of Timor Leste and Mozambique, a day before the inauguration of the 10th edition of Vibrant Gujarat Global Summit. About Timor-Leste or East Timor: Situated in the eastern Lesser Sunda Islands at the southern extremity of the Malay Archipelago, Timor-Leste is an island country. Its capital a

Project BHISHM

BHISHM -Bharat Health Initiative for Sahyog, Hita and Maitri). It is a project that aims to provide immediate medical assistance during humanitarian crises or natural disasters. It is a joint project of the Indian Navy and the DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organisation). The project also includes the world's first indigenous portable hosp


The 2nd edition of the Ministry of Education’s flagship R&D Innovation Fair, IInvenTiv-2024 was inaugurated by Union Education Minister recently. It aims to showcase the holistic impact of the research and innovation carried out by the country's top higher education institutes.

Harni lake

Harni Motnath Lake is a green lake in Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

Indian Toy industry

Context: Indian Toy industry witnesses 52% decline in imports and 239% rise in exports in FY 2022-23 in comparison to FY 2014-15. News: A case study on the "Success Story of Made in India Toys" conducted by IIM Lucknow for DPIIT highlights positive trends in the Indian toy industry: Dependence on imported inputs decreased significantly from 33% to 12%, showcasing increased se

Equipment for Recycling of Waste Thermoplastic Polymers

Context: Indigenous equipment called single screw extruder developed for mechanical recycling through melt-mixing of waste thermoplastic polymers and inorganic particulate fillers can help manufacture and characterize polymer composites that can be molded to the required shape for making paver blocks, tiles, and bricks. Present status of recycling:  At present, commercially available melt-

Fo Guang Shan

Fo Guang Shan Cultural and Educational Centre, received registration under ‘religious, cultural, economic, educational and social purpose’ category recently. Fo Guang Shan (FGS) is one of the largest Buddhist organization and monastic order based in Taiwan. The name translates to "Buddha's Light Mountain". FGS practices Humanistic Buddhism,

Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park (PNHZP)

The Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park (PNHZP) is a zoo in Darjeeling, India. It's also known as the Darjeeling Zoo and is the largest high-altitude zoo in the country. The zoo is dedicated to wildlife conservation and is known for its breeding programs for red pandas, Himalayan salamanders, Tibetan wolves, and snow leopards. World Association for Zoos and Aquar


Munagapaka is a village in the Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Munagapaka, known for sugarcane cultivation, is gearing up to organise the 15th edition of the traditional sports like Horse, bullock cart races during Sankranti. The races were quite different from Jallikattu organised in Tamil Nadu or similar competitions held in Krishna and Guntur.

Snow leopard

Context: Sadyr Zhaparov, the president of Kyrgyzstan signed a decree to declare the snow leopard as the national symbol of Kyrgyzstan. About Snow Leopard: Scientific Name: Panthera uncia Indicator Species: Snow leopards serve as crucial indicators of the mountain ecosystem's health due to their role as the top predator in the food web. Habitat: Found in the mountains of central A

Bab el-Mandeb

Context: British maritime security agency UKMTO reported explosions late Tuesday near a cargo ship in the strategic Bab el-Mandeb Strait, which separates the Arabian Peninsula from the Horn of Africa. About Bab al-Mandab Strait It is a strait that connects the Red Sea (northwest) with the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean (southeast). It is located between Arabia (northeast) a

Buxa National Park

Context: Recently, a tiger has been observed in West Bengal’s Buxa National  Park. The previous  sighting of Tiger was after 23 years on December 12, 2021. News: Possible Factors Contributing to the Tiger Population Recovery: Growth in the number of prey animals for tigers. Increase in the size of grassland habitats, providing more suitable areas for tiger popula


W1935 is a brown dwarf star that is 47 light-years away from Earth. It is the 1st auroral candidate outside of the solar system that has been identified through methane emission signatures. It is also the coldest auroral candidate outside of our solar system, with a temperature of about 400 degrees Fahrenheit (200 degrees Celsius). Astronomers using NASA&#


It is an all-in-one AI platform that can create content as well as enhance productivity. The application has been developed by New York-based software engineer Rohit Das and New Jersey-based software engineer David Laub. Vondy is free and there are no message limits unlike ChatGPTand also has an AI assistant that’s a social media influencer.

Green Hydrogen from Whisky Distillery

Researchers at the Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh used wastewater from the whisky distilling industry to produce green hydrogen, which is a type of sustainable fuel. They did this by developing a new nanoscale material, nickel selenide that allowed distillery wastewater to replace fresh water in the green hydrogen production & it treats the wastewater.

Internet cable project in Lakshadweep

Context: recently Kochi–Lakshadweep submarine optical fibre cable project was inaugurated , implemented at a cost of ₹1,072 crore, which will connect the islands to high-speed internet for the first time, after years of relying on limited satellite bandwidth. About the project: Objective   The KLI project involves extending submarine cable connectivity from Kochi to eleve

SpaceX’s Falcon-9 to launch India’s GSAT-20; satellite to spread broadband coverage

Context: NewSpace India Ltd. (NSIL), the commercial arm of the Indian Space Research Organisation, will launch GSAT-20 (renamed GSAT-N2), on board SpaceX’s Falcon-9 rocket during the second quarter of 2024. About GSAT-20 Satellite: Features: GSAT-20 is a high-throughput Ka-band satellite equipped with 32 beams, providing comprehensive coverage across India, including remote regio

Global FinTech Forum

On the sidelines of the Vibrant Gujarat Global Summit, PM interacted with prominent business leaders in the Global FinTech Leadership Forum at GIFT city in Gujarat recently. The Global Fintech Forum is a space for shareholders, customers, and participants to share experiences and experiment.

Zero Defect, Zero Effect Scheme

Zero Defect Zero Effect (ZED) is a certification scheme for Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). The scheme's goal is to improve the competitiveness and sustainability of MSMEs, and to help them become national and international champions. The ZED scheme has 3 levels of certification - Bronze, Silver, and Gold. The certification is based on parameters such as qua

‘Swayam Siddha’

Swayam Siddha is a financial product from the State Bank of India (SBI) that provides loans to women entrepreneurs from Self Help Groups (SHGs). The loans can be up to 5 lakh rupees.

Pravasi Bharatiya Divas (PBD)

Pravasi Bharatiya Divas, also known as Non-Resident Indian (NRI) Day, flagship event of the Ministry of External Affairs is celebrated on January 9 every year. Aim - To mark the contribution and achievements of the overseas Indian community to the development of India. It’s a day to acknowledge the achievements of Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) and Persons of


Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) lab and a Hyderabd based private firm launched an indigenous assault rifle named Ugram recently. The rifle is weighing less than 4 kg with a 500-meter firing range. It is designed and developed to meet the operational requirements of the Indian armed forces, Para military forces, and state police forces.

National Sports and Adventure Awards 2023

The National Sports and Adventure Awards were established in 2002 to honor athletes who contribute to sports and continue to promote sports events after retirement. The 2023 awards included Major Dhyan Chand Khel Ratna Awards-2023; Dronacharya Awards-2023; Arjuna Awards-2023; Dhyan Chand Awards-2023; Tenzing Norgay National Adventure Awards-2022; Rashtriya Khel Protsahan

Gulf of Aden

Context: The Indian Navy has deployed ships and aircraft to maintain enhanced surveillance and maritime security operations in the North/Central Arabian Sea and Gulf of Aden.  News: The Navy is actively observing the situation in collaboration with national maritime agencies and is dedicated to guaranteeing the well-being of merchant shipping and seafarers in the area. Cu

Efficacy of nano urea

Context: A two-year field study conducted by Punjab Agricultural University (PAU) scientists on the effectiveness of Liquid Nano Urea has revealed a significant reduction in rice and wheat yields compared to the application of conventional nitrogen (N) fertilizer. News: These results highlight the importance of conducting extended, long-term field assessments spanning 5-7 years to determine

Polar Bear Dies of Avian Flu in the Arctic

Context: The Arctic region has reported the first case of death of a polar bear due to the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI). News: The Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation reported the discovery of a deceased bear in the vicinity of Utqiagvik, Alaska's northernmost community. The first detection of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in the Arctic regio

MSMEs in India

A recent report of CBRE-CREDAI says that Maharastra, TamilNadu and Uttar Pradesh (top 3 States) contribute 40% of registered MSMEs in India. Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises are known by the acronym MSME.

Peregrine & Vulcan

The Peregrine lander was built by Pittsburgh-based space robotics firm Astrobotic and aimed to become the first lunar lander constructed by a private company. This is also the first mission to fly under NASA’s Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) initiative, where NASA pays private companies to send scientific equipment to the moon. Vulcan Centaur is a two-stage-to-orbit, heavy


Sisal is a species of flowering plant native to southern Mexico. Sisal, (Agave sisalana), plant of the family Asparagaceae and its fibre, the most important of the leaf fibre group. The leaves have been used to make twine, cloth, carpets and mezcal, a distilled alcoholic beverage. A recent study suggests that the sisal leaves could make sanitary napkins more sustainable in India.

Prithvi programme

Context: The Union Cabinet cleared a ₹4,797-crore programme called ‘Prithvi’ (Earth) that is expected to subsume five existing schemes of the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES). About Prithvi Vigyan Scheme: The Prithvi scheme consolidates five existing sub-schemes, namely: Atmosphere & Climate Research-Modelling Observing Systems & Services (ACROSS) Ocean Service

International Purple Fest 2024

The International Purple Fest 2024 is a global celebration of inclusivity and empowerment that is being held in Goa. The festival aims to promote the rights of people with disabilities and create a platform for them to showcase their talents and abilities.

Countries of Particular Concern

U.S. designates China, Pakistan and North Korea and some other countries as 'Countries of Particular Concern' recently. Countries of Particular Concern (CPC) are countries where the government engages in or tolerates “particularly severe” violations of religious freedom. The U.S. Department of State designates CPCs under the International Religious Freedom Act of

Vellayani Lake

Vellayani Lake of Punchakkari wetland is the largest freshwater lake in Trivandrum, Kerala. The Vellayani Devi Temple, dedicated to Goddess Bhadrakali, is located on the eastern banks of the lake.

Centre Plans Interest-free Loans for Andhra’s Cyclone-hit Tobacco Farmers

Context: The Central government is considering a proposal to provide interest-free loans to tobacco farmers of Andhra Pradesh impacted by Cyclone Michaung. News: Interest-Free Loans for Andhra Tobacco Farmers: Loan Details: Andhra Tobacco farmers are set to receive interest-free loans ranging from ₹10,000 to ₹20,000, with a repayment period of six months. These loans

Polygraph test

Context: Five of the six people arrested by the Delhi Police in connection with the Parliament security breach on December 13 last year gave their consent before a court here on Friday to undergo a polygraph test. About: A polygraph test is carried out on the assumption that physiological responses triggered when one is lying are different from what they otherwise would be. Rather than

Chandubi Festival

The Chandubi Festival takes place near the Chandubi Lake in Kamrup district, Assam. The festival celebrates Assamese culture and traditions, and aims to promote and preserve the cultural heritage of the area's tribal communities. The Chandubi Festival is organized by the people of Rajapara village in the Kamrup district, under the Rabha Hasong Autonomous Council (RHAC).


PM congratulates Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina of Bangladesh for victory for 4th consecutive term recently. Sheikh Hasina's Awami League won almost 75% (222 out of 300) Parliamentary seats  of the seats in general election that was boycotted by the main opposition BNP and drew a low turnout.

PM's Awards for Excellence in Public Administration, 2023

Prime Minister’s Awards for Excellence in Public Administration 2023 restructed scheme & web portal launched recently. The award is to acknowledge, recognize and reward the extraordinary and innovative work done by Districts/ Organizations of the Central and State Governments. The Award Scheme restructured to recognize the performance of the District Colle

Mayurbhanj’s Red Ant Chutney Receives GI Tag

Context:  Recently, the Similipal Kai Chutney made with kai pimpudi (red weaver ants) by the tribal people of Odisha’s Mayurbhanj district received the geographical identity tag. News: The application was made by The Mayurbhanj Kai Society Ltd in 2020 for registration in Class 30 under sub-section (1) of section 13 of Geographical Indications of Goods (Re

New Members of BRICS

Context: The five new candidates of BRICS formally became members on January 1, 2024. Introduction of New Members to BRICS: Expansion of BRICS: The inclusion of five new members, namely Egypt, Ethiopia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, marks a significant enlargement of the BRICS alliance. Argentina's Withdrawal: Argentina has opted to retract its initia

Mannhit App

The Union Health Minister and the Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh jointly launched the Mannhit app recently. It is an initiative facilitating screening for mental health.

16th Century Telugu Inscriptions

2 Telugu inscriptioans of 16th century found in Nallamala forest in Andhra Pradesh recently. One of the inscriptions records the construction of cradle pillars (uyyala-kambalu) to Goddess Poleramma. The other inscription seems to refer to a hero fighting with a tiger.

Krizna Jama Cave

Krizna Jama, also known as Cross Cave or Cold Cave under Cross Mountain, is a cave in Slovenia. It's located in the Loz Valley, between the Loz Karst Field, Cerknica Karst Field, and Bloke Plateau. Krizna Jama is the 4th biggest known underground ecosystem in the world in terms of biodiversity.

The DART Book & Food Safety on Wheels (FSW)

Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has recently released “The Detect Adulteration with Rapid Test (DART) Book” & Food Safety on Wheels (FSW). DART booklet is a compilation of common quick tests for detection of food adulterants by the citizens themselves so as to induce awareness among the consumers about food safety. A mobile food testing van calle


Context: On January 8, 2024, the ICAR-Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (CTCRI) issued a cautionary advisory regarding the feeding of animals with cassava, commonly known as tapioca. About Tapioca Plant: Tapioca is a significant horticulture crop extensively cultivated on nearly 3 lakh hectares in Tamil Nadu, yielding an annual production of 60 lakh tonnes. It holds global importa

Indrayani river

Context: The reappearance of toxic foam in the Indrayani River has revived concerns about pollution in the region. About Indrayani River : Geographical Setting: The Indrayani River serves as a tributary of the Bhima River, a significant contributor to the Krishna River. Originating near Lonavla in Kurvande village amidst the Sahyadri mountains of Maharashtra, the river depends on rainfa

MV Vasiliy Golovnin

MV Vasiliy Golovnin, an expedition vessel chartered by India, commenced its journey recently. The journey is from Cape Town to Antarctica for the 43rd Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) Voyage. The expedition includes 21 members from India, two from Mauritius, and one from Bangladesh.

Moradabad brass

Moradabad brass is a small-scale, low-technology industry that has been growing since the early 19th century. Moradabad city is known as the "City of Brass" or Pital Nagri for its large-scale brass works. It was established in 1600 by Murad, the son of the Mughal Emperor Shahjahan, as a result the city came to known as Moradabad. The British took the art t


Context: Jallikattu, the traditional bull-taming sport, kicked off the year in Tamil Nadu with an event in Thachankurichi village featuring 500 bulls and heavy security. About: Jallikattu is a traditional sport deeply rooted in the culture of Tamil Nadu, India. Celebrated during the Tamil harvest festival, Pongal, in January, the event involves releasing a wild bull into a crowd. Pa


Union Minister of Health & Family Welfare inaugurates the country’s 1st Healthy & Hygienic Food Street, 'PRASADAM,' in Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh. The street will serve traditional dishes made of coarse grains like rajgira, sanwa, kuttu, ragi, dal-baffle, and more.


Context: A group of scientists affiliated with research institutes in China and Japan have reported finding a sign of superconductivity in a material that was at the centre of a controversy last year over similar claims. The sign in question is called the Meissner effect.  About: Superconductivity is an inherent property found in various materials, including chemical elements (e.g., mer

Investment bankers

An investment banker is an individual who often works as part of a financial institution and is primarily concerned with raising capital for corporations, governments, or other entities. Examples of investment banker employers - Goldman Sachs (GS), Morgan Stanley (MS), JPMorgan Chase (JPM), Bank of America Merrill Lynch (BAC), and Deutsche Bank (DB).

National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA)

National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA) was set up as a registered society under the Societies Registration Act of 1860 on 2005 with a mandate of creating dope-free sports in India.

GI-Tagged Products from Odisha

Context: Seven products from Odisha, including traditional foods and handicrafts, have received the Geographical Indication (GI) tag. About Geographical Indication (GI) Tag: A Geographical Indication (GI) is a label affixed to products originating from a specific geographical location, possessing unique qualities or a reputation attributable to that origin. Nodal Agency and Legal Framewor

India’s First Healthy & Hygienic Food Street

Context: Recently, the Union Minister for Health & Family Welfare, inaugurated India’s first Healthy & Hygienic Food Street, ‘PRASADAM,’ at Neelkanth Van, Mahakal Lok, in Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh.  Objectives of the Initiative: The primary goal of the Prasadam initiative is to establish a connection among people across the nation by providing access

Health Ministry Steps Up Fight Against Zoonotic Diseases

Context: As per the Union Health Ministry, 75% of new infectious diseases that have emerged over the past three decades have been zoonotic, and the Ministry is increasing its focus on zoonotic diseases. Zoonotic diseases They are the infections transmitted between humans and animals. These infections result from various pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, an

Krishnarajasagar (KRS) dam

Context: Karnataka HC bans mining activity near KRS reservoir. High Court says ban will apply even on existing mining licences, adding, it will be in force till the completion of a study by experts and decision taken by the State committee on dam safety. About Krishnaraja Sagar (KRS) Dam: Krishnaraja Sagar (KRS) Dam is a gravity dam. Situated below the confluence of the Kaveri River wit

Bobbili Veena

The Bobbili veena is a large plucked string instrument used in Carnatic classical music, also known as the Saraswati veena and is named after the town of Bobbili, where it was invented. In 2011, the Government of India gave the instrument a Geographical Indication tag. The Bobbili veena is known for its distinctive notes and fine tune which is made from a single pie

National Birds Day

January 5 is observed as National Birds Day introduced by U.S.A in 2002 and followed in some parts of the world. It is aimed at raising awareness for the conservation of avian species that have been adversely affected by habitat destruction, reducing food choices and climate change. The theme of the National Birds Day 2024 is ‘Right to Fight’. Birds in N

Show Cause Notice by Financial Intelligence Unit

Context: India’s Financial Intelligence Unit has issued show-cause notices to nine offshore crypto-currency operators, including Binance, for not complying with the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 (PMLA). News: Show Cause Notices for compliance have been sent to nine offshore Virtual Digital Assets Service Providers (VDA SPs) under Section 13 o

Small finance bank

Context: Recently, Small finance bank (SFB) campaigns were launched.The initiative aims to showcase the achievements of Small Finance Banks (SFBs) in terms of their business models to various stakeholders. About Small Finance Bank (SFB): Small Finance Banks are financial institutions dedicated to providing financial services in regions that are underserved and unbanked. They are i


The X-65 is an experimental jet aircraft developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Control of Revolutionary Aircraft with Novel Effectors (CRANE) program. It is a full-scale aircraft to demonstrate a new method of flight control that uses no external moving parts.

Hot Jupiters

Hot Jupiters are a class of exoplanets that have features similar to Jupiter, but are much closer to their host star & its upper atmosphere is hotter than 1,800 degrees Celcius. The harsh ultraviolet radiation from its star is heating the planet’s upper atmosphere, which in turn causes magnesium and iron gas to escape into space. The star’s powerful gr


Context: Union Minister of Housing & Urban Affairs inaugurated India’s first ‘Zero Waste Street Food Festival’ in Delhi ,highlighted the role of Prime Minister Street Vendor's AtmaNirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi) Scheme in empowerment of street vendors. Key Features of PM-SVANidhi: - The PM-SVANidhi is a Central Sector Scheme, fully funded by the Ministry of Housing and Ur

Warli painting

Context: Warli Whisperers, an exhibition by the Inherited Arts Forum, traces the artistic journey of the celebrated Mashe family from Maharashtra About: Origin: Warli art, until the 1970s, focused on representing the joy and happiness of the Warli Tribes' lives. Traditionally, women practiced this art form. Method: Cow dung layers serve as the canvas, painted in mud brown for the ba

Anamalai Tiger Reserve

Context: Forest officials in the Anamalai Tiger Reserve (ATR) rescued a wild elephant calf who was found separated from the herd About Anamalai Tiger Reserve: - Location:         The Anamalai Tiger Reserve is a protected area situated at an elevation of 1400 m in the Anamalai Hills within Pollachi and Coimbatore Districts of Tamil Nadu. Positioned to the s

International Braille Day

World Braille Day is celebrated on January 4th to commemorate the birthday of Louis Braille, the inventor of braille. The day recognizes the importance of braille as a means of communication and the roale it plays in the lives of blind and visually impaired people. Braille is a tactile representation of alphabetic and numerical symbols using 6 dots to represent each letter

PSLV-C58 XPoSat mission

Context:  The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) kicked off the new year with the launch of the PSLV-C58 X-ray Polarimeter Satellite (XPoSat) on January 1, 2024. On January 1, 2024, the PSLV-C58 mission achieved success, placing the primary satellite, XPoSat, into the intended orbit of 650 km with a 6-degree inclination The successful launch of XPoSat makes India the second

Domestic Systemically Important Banks (D-SIBs)

Context: Recently, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) issued its list of Domestic Systemically Important Banks (D-SIBs). News: In the recent update by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), both the State Bank of India (SBI) and HDFC Bank have been reclassified to higher tiers, while ICICI Bank maintains its existing categorization from the previous year The revised classifications pla

Project ‘Veer Gatha’

The 3rd edition of Project ‘Veer Gatha’, a joint initiative of Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Education will take part in Republic Day celebrations. Project Veer Gatha is a project that was established in 2021 under the Gallantry Awards Portal (GAP). Aim – To disseminate the details of the bravery and sacrifice of the Gallantry Awardees (So

Pariksha Pe Charcha 2024

Pariksha Pe Charcha (PPC) is an annual event where Prime Minister Narendra Modi interacts with students, teachers, and parents. Students of Classes 6 to 12 are eligible to participate in this event. The event is part of the larger movement, 'Exam Warriors', which aims to create a stress-free environment for young people. PPC 2024 is the 7th ed

Radiocarbon dating

Context: The technology allowed scholars a clearer and measurable view of the past, clarifying the history of human migration, the rise and fall of civilisations, and undulations of the earth’s climate About: Radiocarbon dating, also known as carbon-14 dating, is a scientific method employed to precisely ascertain the age of organic materials, with its accuracy extending to around 6

PLI scheme

Context: The Production Linked Incentive (PLI) program for the automobile sector has been extended by one year through March 2028.  News: The extension of the original five-year scheme, initially covering the period from 2022-23 to 2026-27, will remain effective until 2027-28. This extension provides companies with additional time to capitalize on the Production-Linked Incenti

Operation Prosperity Guardian

Context: The US Secretary of State announced a joint maritime security initiative called Operation Prosperity Guardian to aid the safe movement of ships in the Red Sea. This follows missile and drone attacks by Yemen’s Iran-aligned Houthis. About: Countries Involved: The U.K., Bahrain, Canada, France, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Seychelles, and Spain are participating. Joint Patr

Joint Military Exercise Desert Cyclone Between India and UAE

Context: The inaugural edition of joint military exercise ‘Desert Cyclone 2024’ involving India and the UAE is set to occur in Rajasthan from January 2 to January 15. About Desert Cyclone 2024 : Counter-Terrorism Operations:   - The focus of the joint exercise is on counter-terrorism operations, encompassing missions such as joint planning, opera

Tur dal procurement portal

Cooperation ministry recently launched a portal through which farmers can sell tur dal to government procurement agencies at the minimum support price (MSP) or market price, whichever is higher. Govt. Procurement agencies - National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India (Nafed) or National Cooperative Consumers’ Federation of India (NCCF).


Alvaro, the 1st cyclone of 2024, made landfall near Morombe in Madagascar recently. Mozambique named the cyclone Alvaro. Resilience and Preparedness to tropical cyclones across Southern Africa (REPRESA) is an international initiative that aims to improve community preparedness for tropical cyclones in Southern Africa.

Clean energy target by Himachal Pradesh

The Himachal Pradesh government made 2 major decisions recently. All government offices have been prohibited from purchasing petrol or diesel vehicles since January 1. Simultaneously, under another scheme, people will be paid Rs 20,000 per month if they donate 3 bighas of land for the construction of a solar power plant. These decisions have been taken to make Himachal Prades

Hattis get ST tag

Context: The state government of Himachal Pradesh has finally issued notification to give Scheduled Tribe (ST) status to the Hatti community of Trans-Giri area of Sirmaur district. Background: The residents of the Trans-Giri area were demanding ST status on the lines of the Jaunsar-Bawar area of  . Uttarakhand granted in 1967 itself. Both Trans-Giri and J


IIT Bombay has developed an instrument, GolDN (pronounced as Golden) for melt-mixing of waste thermoplastic polymers and inorganic particulate fillers to manufacture polymer composites. GolDN is a single screw extruder that mechanically recycles waste plastic polymers through melt-mixing. The instrument can manufacture composites from thermoplastic waste that can be molded


Researchers have identified a new class of antibiotics named Zosurabalpin with the potential to tackle a drug-resistant bacterium, Acinetobacter baumannii recently. It inhibits the transport of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules. Zosurabalpin was found to be effective against CRAB (carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii)-induced pneumonia and sepsis in mice

No sale of blood

The Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) said that blood at hospitals or private banks and centres is “not for sale” but allowed for a “processing charge”. The revised guidelines said that processing fees can be charged for blood or blood components, which ranges from Rs 250 to Rs 1,550. The Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation

Savitribai Phule and Rani Velu Nachiyar

Context: The Prime Minister paid tributes to Savitribai Phule and Rani Velu Nachiyar on their Jayanti. Savitribai Phule Savitribai Phule was a Maharashtra-based social reformer and educator who, along with her husband Jyotirao Phule, played a significant role in promoting women's rights in India. Here are some key points about her life and work: - Born on January 3, 1831, in Naigaon,


Context: The Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) along with National Commission for Indian System of Medicine (NCISM) has launched 'SMART 2.0' (Scope for Mainstreaming Ayurveda Research among Teaching professionals) program to promote robust clinical studies in priority areas of Ayurveda with Ayurveda academic institutions/hospitals across the country throu

Kuppa Pumped Hydro Storage Project

NHPC Limited and Gujarat govt sign MoU for Rs.4,000 crore in the proposed 750 MW Kuppa Pumped Hydro Storage Project in Chhota Udaipur, Gujarat. It aims to utilize pumped hydro storage projects for energy storage and addressing. It is a part of “Vibrant Gujarat” initiative.

North India's 1st Biotech Industrial Park

North India’s 1st industrial biotech park inaugurated in Jammu and Kashmir’s Kathua recently. Biotech Parks offer facilities to scientists and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) for technology incubation, demonstration, and pilot plant studies. The parks are established to facilitate product advancement and innovation through the development of biot

Argentina Withdraws From BRICS

Context: The newly elected far-right President of Argentina, Javier Milei, pulled out of plans to join the BRICS bloc. Argentina was set to join on January 1, 2024. Reasons for withdrawal: The decision to join BRICS had been taken by the previous administration, and the new dispensation was reviewing such policies. Milei cited China's communist ideology as a p

India Pakistan Exchange list of Nuclear Installations

Context: India and Pakistan exchanged the list of nuclear installations, covered under the Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations and Facilities. About: India and Pakistan have a history of exchanging lists of their nuclear installations under a bilateral pact that prohibits the two sides from attacking each other's atomic facilities. This agreemen

Matarbari Port

Context: India is considering proposals to connect Bangladesh’s Matarbari Port to Northeastern States. About: Matarbari Port is a deep-sea port under construction at Matarbari in Maheshkhali Upazila of Cox's Bazar District, Bangladesh. Some key details about the port include: - Type of harbor: Artificial - Construction started in 2011 - Located near the Bay of Bengal

Vazhakulam variety

Vazhakulam pineapple is a pineapple grown in the Vazhakulam area of Kerala, India. The pineapple is unique in aroma, flavour and sweetness due to its high sugar content and low acidity. Vazhakulam is considered as the biggest pineapple market in India. It got its GI tag in 2009.

Czech Republic

The Czech Republic, also known as Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe with its capital Prague. It borders Poland, Germany, Austria, and Slovakia. With a lack of natural lakes, reservoirs are important in the Czech Republic.

PRERANA program

Prerana is a week-long residential program for 20 selected students (10 boys and 10 girls) of class IX to XII, aimed at empowering them with leadership qualities. Ministry – Ministry of Education. Prerana program will run from a Vernacular School, established in 1888, in one of the oldest living cities of India, Vadnagar, in Gujarat. The curriculum of Prerana Schoo

Education and Research Network (ERNET)

The Education and Research Network is an autonomous scientific society of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology. ERNET was established in 1986 to provide a networking infrastructure for the research and education community with its headquarters are in New Delhi. ERNET's mandate is to support the needs of academic and research institutions thr

Cyber kidnapping

Cyber kidnapping is a type of cybercrime where attackers gain unauthorized access to computer systems or data and then demand ransom. In cyber kidnapping, online attackers target victims and force them into isolating themselves to demand ransom from their families. They monitor the victims through video chat and use pictures captured by them in isolated conditions to extort money from th


Starlink is a satellite internet network operated by SpaceX, an American aerospace company. It provides coverage to over 70 countries and aims to provide high-speed internet coverage to every part of the world. It also aims to provide global mobile phone service after 2023.


The Earth reached its perihelion, or the closest point in its orbit around the Sun recently. Perihelion occurs in early January, about 2 weeks after the Winter Solstice.

Extension of Bharatmala Phase 1

Context: Phase 1 of the Bharatmala project deadline has been extended by six years, to FY 2027-28.  News: Project Initiation: The first phase of Bharatmala, unveiled in 2017, aimed for completion by 2022. Estimated Cost Approval: The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) sanctioned the initial phase with an estimated cost of Rs 5.35 trillion. Cost Overrun: The Public Inves

Sanjauli-Dhalli Tunnel

Context: Recently, the Chief Minister of Himachal Pradesh inaugurated the newly-constructed Sanjauli-Dhalli tunnel. About  Sanjauli-Dhalli Tunnel: Description: A double-lane tunnel spanning approximately 150 meters, constructed at an estimated cost of Rs 47 crore. Existing Dhalli Tunnel: Originally built in 1852 as a single-lane passage, the older Dhalli tunnel had exceed

Scope for Mainstreaming Ayurveda Research among Teaching professionals (‘SMART 2.0’)

The Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) along with National Commission for Indian System of Medicine (NCISM) has launched 'SMART 2.0' recently. The program aims to promote robust clinical studies in priority areas of Ayurveda with Ayurveda academic institutions/hospitals across the country through mutual collaboration.

Fog Pass Device

A Fog Pass Device is a GPS-based navigation device that helps train loco pilot navigate through dense fog. It provides on-board real-time information (Display as well as voice guidance) to Loco Pilots. It gives information regarding location of fixed landmarks such as Signal, Level Crossing gate (Manned & Unmanned), Permanent Speed Restrictions, Neutral Sections e

Mountain Green Cover Index (MGCI)

Recently National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) signed a 3-year MoU with the National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC) to develop & report a Green Cover Index for National highways. MGCI is a metric that measures the amount of green vegetation in mountain areas (forest, shrubs, trees, pasture land, crop land, etc.) in order to monitor progress towards the mountain targe

82nd session of Indian History Congress

Context: The 82nd Session of Indian History Congress(IHC) began at Kakatiya University in Warangal. News: Kakatiya University is set to host the Indian History Congress (IHC) after a hiatus of 30 years. The IHC is an annual two-day conference scheduled to commence on December 28 and conclude on December 30. The conference will feature discussion panels covering var

Zero coupon zero principle

Context: Capital markets regulator Sebi on Thursday came out with a procedure for public issuance of 'zero coupon zero principle' instruments by not-for-profit organisations (NPOs) and listing of such instruments on the Social Stock Exchange (SSE). News: Instruments issued in dematerialized form are non-transferable. The minimum issue size for such instruments is set a

Govt extends export benefits under RoDTEP scheme to ecommerce exporters

Context: The government announced the extension of export benefits under the RoDTEP scheme for ecommerce exports through post or couriers. News: The RoDTEP scheme, implemented three years ago, involves the refund of non-creditable central, state, and local levies embedded in exporters' inputs. Currently, e-commerce exporters are excluded from RoDTEP benefits. The Commerce Ministry

Kochi-Lakshadweep Islands Submarine Optical Fiber Connection

PM Inaugurates Kochi-Lakshadweep Islands Submarine Optical Fiber Connection and dedicates Low Temperature Thermal Desalination (LTTD) plant at Kadmat recently Kochi-Lakshadweep Islands Submarine Optical Fiber connection will lead to faster Internet for the people of Lakshadweep. The project is funded by Universal Services Obligation Fund (USOF), Department of Telecommunications.

Savitribai Phule & Rani Velu Nachiyar

Savitribai Phule Savitribai Phule (1831 - 1897) was a social reformer, poet in Maharastra. She is considered the 1st female teacher in India and is known as the mother of Indian feminism. Rani Velu Nachiyar Rani Velu Nachiyar was the 1st queen to fight against the British colonial power in India. She is known by Tamils as Veeramangai, who was the pr


Context: Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities through National Divyangjan Finance and Development Corporation (NDFDC, an apex corporation under (DEPwD) is organizing a unique event showcasing the products and craftsmanship of Divyang entrepreneurs/artisans from across the country, ‘Divya Kala Mela’ from 29th December 2023 – 7th January 2024 in Sur

National Youth Award 2024

Union Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports has selected Bisathi Bharat of Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh for the National Youth Award (NYA) recently. It is an award conferred annually to individuals and voluntary organisations serving in the arena of youth development.

South Coast Railway Zone

The South Coast Railway (SCoR) Zone is India's 18th railway zone, and its headquarters are in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. It was announced in 2019 and still not started yet.

Amendment of Central Civil Services (Pension) Rules, 2021

The Union government has now amended the Central Civil Services (Pension) Rules of 2021. It is to allow women government servants and pensioners to nominate their children for receiving family pension over their spouse. Conditions – At the time of the women’s death, any proceedings for divorce, domestic violence, or dowry demands happen to be pending against the said spouse

Enhanced tiger population at Valmiki Tiger reserve

Context: The increase in tiger numbers in the Valmiki Tiger Reserve in Bihar was facilitated by diminished human activity, including bans on mining. In VTR, the status of tiger conservation has seen significant improvements: Mining Restrictions: Strict measures, including a complete ban on sand and stone mining within VTR, along with rigorous restrictions on mining activities in its eco-sens

Ayushman Bhav Campaign

Context: In a significant milestone, more than 5 crore ABHA accounts have been created during the ongoing Ayushman Bhava campaign. In addition, a total of 4,44,92,564 Ayushman cards have been generated and 1,15,923 Ayushman Sabha organized. About the campaign Universal Health Coverage (UHC) Goal:  Ayushman Bhava follows a collaborative, multi-ministerial approach. Aligned with the mo


Context: Indian scientists have indigenously developed organic-inorganic halide perovskite self-powered broadband photodetector with partial substitution of lead by magnesium which can be useful for solar energy generation. News: Introduction of Eco-Friendly Alternative: The research address issues with toxic lead in organic-inorganic halide perovskite (MAPbI3). It propose a

The Kharsawan massacre of 1948

The Kharsawan massacre occurred on January 1, 1948 in the town of Kharsawan, which is now part of Jharkhand. The massacre was similar to the Jallianwala Bagh incident in 1919. The massacre occurred during a protest against the merger of Kharsawan with Odisha. Police opened fire on a crowd of Adivasis, killing hundreds or possibly thousands.

Mount Lewotobi Laki-Laki

Mount Lewotobi Laki-Laki is a mountain in Indonesia. It is part of the Lewotobi twin volcano, which is located in the southeastern part of Flores Island. The Lewotobi twin volcano is made up of the Lewotobi Laki-Laki (male) and Lewotobi Perempuan (female) stratovolcanoes, with summit craters less than 2 km apart. Mount Lewotobi Laki-Laki in Indonesia has erupted several times

CZA allows Odisha’s Nandankanan to receive cheetah, African lion from Dubai Safari

Context: The Central Zoo Authority has allowed the Odisha government to carry out the planned transfer of a cheetah, African lion and Chimpanzee from Dubai Safari Park (DSP) to Nandankanan Zoological Park (NZP), Bhubaneswar. The CZA has asked the wildlife wing of the State Forest and Environment Department to keep requisite housing facilities ready in accordance with its guideline. News: &


Context: The World Health Organization (WHO) on December 15, 2023 added one of the world’s most underrecognised health challenges, noma, to its official list of neglected tropical diseases (NTD). Context: The World Health Organization (WHO) on December 15, 2023 added one of the world’s most underrecognised health challenges, noma, to its official list of neglected tropical diseases

Seperate Toilets for women in district courts

Nearly 1/5th of the district courts in India lack separate toilets for women, according to a report published by the Centre for Research and Planning of the Supreme Court recently. The Centre for Research and Planning will serve as a bridge between academic research, legal and judicial education and the judicial systems.

PM Vishwakarma

Jammu and Kashmir has become the first Union Territory (UT) to implement the PM VishwakarmaYojana (PMVY) recently. It is an initiative that aims to empower and enhance the skills of the craftsman community (Vishwakarmas). 18 traditional trades will be covered in the first instance under PM Vishwakarma.

PM interacts with beneficiaries of Viksit Bharat Sankalp Yatra

Context: Since its launch on 15th November, 2023, Prime Minister has regularly interacted with the beneficiaries of the Viksit Bharat Sankalp Yatra all across the country.  The interaction has happened thrice through video conferencing (30th November, 9th December and 16th December). Also, Prime Minister has interacted with Viksit Bharat Sankalp Yatra beneficiaries physically on two consecuti

Mera Yuva Bharat (MY Bharat) portal

Context: Registration of youth on the Mera Yuva Bharat portal has crossed 35 Lakhs About the portal: The Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports has launched a tech-driven platform Mera Yuva Bharat (MY Bharat) portal, aimed at fostering youth development and empowering young people to lead positive change. Key Goals: Developing Youth Leaders: To nurture leadership skills and equip

Sweden moves a step closer to NATO membership after Turkey's parliamentary committee gives approval

Context: Sweden’s NATO bid had been stalled amid opposition from Turkiye and Hungary A crucial committee in the Turkish Parliament, on December 26, granted approval for Sweden's NATO membership bid after facing delays. The approval comes amid obstacles posed by Turkey and Hungary against Sweden's NATO accession. The Turkish parliament's foreign affairs committee gav

Ennore ammonia gas leak | NGT takes suo motu cognisance

Context: Based on media reports of several people from Periakuppam, Ernavur, Burma Nagar experiencing breathlessness and eye and skin irritation after leakage of ammonia from gas pipelines of the unit, the NGT on December 27 issued directions to the Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) to file a report on the incident.  News: A gas leakage occurred in the subsea pipeline of Cor

Inoperative account by RBI

A savings or current account is treated as inoperative, if there are no ‘customer induced transactions’ in the account for a period of over 2 years. A customer induced transaction can be a financial transaction initiated by or done at the Behest of the account holder by the bank or third party, or A non-financial transaction, or A KYC (know your

Rajiv Gandhi International Airport (RGIA)

RGIA in Hyderabad was ranked 2nd among the top 20 global airports with the highest On-Time Performance (OTP), according to Cirium’s annual report released recently. On-time performance (OTP) is a measure of how punctual an airline's flights are compared to their scheduled times. A flight is considered on-time if it arrives or departs within 15 minutes of its sche

One off-key conduct by in-laws cannot be called cruelty under Section 498A: Supreme Court

Context: The apex court was hearing the appeal of a woman who was accused by her newly-wed sister-in-law of using foul language and dumping the latter’s belongings in the dustbin The Issue: The Supreme Court of India ruled that a single instance of bad behavior, including using foul language and disposing of another's belongings, does not amount to "cruelty" under Section 49

Electronic soil

Context: Researchers have developed a new electronics soil that was found to increase the growth of barley seedlings by 50 per cent in a new study. News: A new eSoil, developed by the Electronic Plants group at Linköping University, enhances barley seedling growth by an average of 50% in hydroponic cultivation. The low-power bioelectronic scaffolding, called eSoil, is designed for

Govt directs social media platforms to comply with IT rules amid concerns over deepfakes

Context: The advisory by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) mandates that intermediaries communicate prohibited content, particularly those specified under Rule 3(1)(b) of the IT Rules, clearly and precisely to users. News: The Indian government issued an advisory to social media platforms regarding compliance with IT rules, specifically addressing concerns abo

Russian oil import at 8-month low in October as discount falls, OPEC share up

Context:  According to an analysis of India’s official trade data by The Indian Express, Russia’s share in India’s oil imports (by volume) in October was 31.9 per cent, down from 34.8 per cent in September. News: Russian Share Decline: Russia's share in India's oil imports dropped to 31.9% in October, an eight-month low.This decline continued for four consec

India, Russia ink pacts on construction of future power units of Kudankulam nuclear plant

Context: External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar, who is on a five-day visit to Russia, made the announcement after his "comprehensive and productive" meeting with Deputy Prime Minister Denis Manturov on the bilateral economic cooperation during which they witnessed signing of agreements on nuclear power and in areas of medicines, pharmaceutical substances and medical devices. Ku

All-Girls Sainik School

Defence Minister recently inaugurated the Samvid Gurukulam Girls Sainik School, the 1st all-girls Sainik School, at Vrindavan in Mathura, Uttar Pradesh. Sainik Schools are residential schools that provide public school education with a military bias. They are affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and are supported by Central and State funding.


1st edition of Exercise Desert Cyclone held recently in Rajasthan. It is a Joint Military Exercise between India & UAE. Aim – To focus on enhancing interoperability and sharing best practices in Urban Operations.

INS Imphal

CONTEXT: INS Imphal to be commissioned today. Its capabilities, and the strategic significance of Visakhapatnam class of destroyers Commissioning marks the day that a ship joins active service. INS Imphal, the third ship of the Visakhapatnam class stealth-guided missile destroyers (Project 15B), is set to be commissioned into the Indian Navy. The class is designed by the Indian Navy

Nation’s first interstate multi-modal transport hub coming up near Delhi airport

CONTEXT: The proposed hub located near the GMR Aerocity will provide connectivity through an Interstate Bus Terminus, Delhi Metro, the proposed Passenger Transport Centre, and proposed Rapid Rail Transit System station. Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL) plans to develop India's first multi-modal interstate transport hub near Aerocity, focusing on integrating bus, metro, and air

Veer Bal Diwas

Veer Bal Diwas CONTEXT: Union Minister of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare and Tribal Affairs Shri Arjun Munda participated in the historic programme marking Veer Bal Diwas at Gurudwara Saheeb Baba Deep Singh Ji at Jamshedpur, Jharkhand today. Veer Bal Diwas is commemorated annually on December 26th to honor the sacrifice of Guru Gobind Singh's four sons, who bravely fought ag

Chairman of Finance Commission

Centre appoints former NITI Aayog Vice Chairman Arvind Panagariya as Chairman of 16th Finance Commission recently. The Finance Commission of India is a constitutional body that allocates revenues between the central and state governments. It was established in 1951 by the President of India under Article 280 of the Indian Constitution.

Leap Year, 2024

A leap year has 366 days in a year as opposed to the regular 365 days. The extra day is added to February, the shortest month of the year, as February 29.


Context: Ketamine drug was reported to be involved in actor Matthew Perry’s death recently.In recent years, ketamine has been a subject of widespread debate due to its growing use for treating depression and other serious mental health issues. About ketamine: Ketamine, classified as an anaesthetic and hallucinogen by the US Drug Enforcement Administration, is derived from Phenc


Valmiki, also known as Maharishi Valmiki, is a legendary poet and revered sage in Hindu mythology. He is known as the author of the epic poem Ramayana, and is revered as the 1st poet in Sanskrit literature. He is called as the Adikavi or First Poet - the Poet of Poets of India. Valmiki's birth anniversary is celebrated every year on Ashwin Purnima.

Warli tribe

The Warli are an indigenous of Maharashtra and Gujarat. The name "Warli" comes from the word "Warla", which means "piece of land" or "field". The Warli are considered by some to be a sub-caste of the Bhil tribe, and their history dates back to the 10th century AD. The Warli people speak Varli or Warli, an Indo-Aryan language.

IEC Campaign on Pradhan Mantri Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan (PM-JANMAN)

Context: The Union Ministry of Tribal Affairs has launched an Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) campaign for the Pradhan Mantri Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan (PM-JANMAN). News: The campaign aims to reach 22,000 Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG) majority tribal habitations and families in 200 districts nationwide. PM-JANMAN was inaugurated on November 15,

PM releases ‘Collected Works of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya’ on occasion of his 162nd birth anniversary

Context: The bilingual work in 11 volumes, spread across about 4,000 pages, is a collection of the writings and speeches of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, collected from every nook and corner of the country. These volumes comprise his unpublished letters, articles and speeches, including memorandums; the editorial content of Hindi weekly ‘Abhyudaya’ started by him in 1907; articles, pamp

National Cooperative Dairy Federation of India (NCDFI)

National Cooperative Dairy Federation of India (NCDFI) was registered on 1970 under the Bombay Cooperative Societies Act (VII of 1925). Headquarters - New Delhi. NCDFI is an apex body of cooperative dairies. Members - NCDFI members include federal dairy cooperatives of states and union territories.


The Ministry of Home Affairs has officially declared ‘Tehreek-e-Hurriyat (TeH)' as an 'unlawful association' for the next 5 years under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act. Tehreek-e-Hurriyat Jammu Wa Kashmir is a separatist political party in Jammu and Kashmir, India founded by Syed Ali Shah Geelani.

Guinness World Record in Gujarat

Gujarat set a Guinness World Record recently after more than 50,000 people performed 'Surya Namaskar' simultaneously at 108 venues. Surya Namaskar or sun salutation is an ancient Yogic practice of paying respect to the rising sun and comprises different postures or Asanas.

MedTech Mitra

Context: The Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare and Chemicals & Fertilizers, Dr. Mansukh Mandaviya, virtually inaugurated 'MedTech Mitra,' a strategic initiative aimed at empowering MedTech innovators and advancing healthcare solutions. About: The platform, MedTech Mitra, serves as a support system for young talents, guiding them in shaping their research, knowledge


It is a Hindu ritual practiced in northern Kerala and some parts of Karnataka.  A Theyyam, also known as Kaliyattam or Tira is a ritualistic performance where pantheistic deities — goddesses in most part — are summoned to the body of the performing man. The form as well as the performance are known as Theyyam. The Chamundi Theyyam is performed by the Pulaya


1. The Russian President Vladimir Putin’s recent visit to China was witnessed by his officers carrying the “nuclear briefcase”. The ‘nuclear briefcase’, also known as the ‘Cheget’ is named after a mountain in Russia. It forms a part of a larger system in place for authorising the launch of nuclear strikes. It’s part of a secured communicatio


RRTS is India’s first mass rapid system dedicated to regional connectivity. It is capable of running at speeds up to 180 km/hour with semi high-speed rail connectivity at its core. The integrated, mass transit network aims to ensure “balanced and sustainable urban development” through better connectivity and access across the NCR. The RRTS also known as Namo Bharat has b


It is a mutually consented upon agreement between two countries on the taxability of specified incomes which both countries claim to have the right to levy tax on. Most countries have DTAAs to overcome the issue of double taxation arising due to cross border incomes. It is also aimed to promote international trade and amplify economic relations.  DTAAs ensures that the same income is


    It is a direct vote by the electorate on a proposal, law, or political issue where voters of a country exercise direct democracy. This is in contrast to an issue being voted on by a representative.  The referendum can deal with adoption of a new policy or specific law or be only advisory. Other methos of us


Coal production in India is a significant part of the country's energy and industrial sectors. India has one of the world's largest coal reserves, and coal remains a crucial source of energy for power generation, as well as a key raw material for various industries, including steel and cement production. Coal production in India is mainly overseen by Coal India Limited (CIL), a state-ow


MSP is the minimum price set by the government for certain agricultural products, at which the products would directly be bought from the farmers if the open market prices are less than the cost incurred. It fosters to insure the farmers against a steep decline in the prices of their goods and to help them prevent losses. MSP is set by the government of India twice a year for 24 commodi


NCLT has been constituted by the central govt. under section 408 of the Companies Act, 2013. The body was established based on the recommendation of the V. Balakrishna Eradi committee on law relating to the insolvency and the winding up of companies It is a quasi-judicial body that adjudicates issues relating to Indian companies. The body deals with all proceedings under th

Kanha National Park

It is also known as Kanha–Kisli National Park. It is one of the tiger reserves of India and the largest national park of the state of Madhya Pradesh and in Central India. The park hosts fauna such as Bengal tiger, Indian leopard, sloth bear, barasingha (adapted to swampy areas) and dhole. The reserve has lowland forest of a


The Rafah crossing is the only passage in and out of the Gaza Strip to Eygpt, that is not controlled by Israel. It has been recognized by the 1979 Egypt–Israel peace treaty. As part of that treaty, a 100-meter-wide strip of land known as the Philadelphi Route was established as a buffer zone between Gaza and Egyp Gaza has been under a joint Israeli-Egyp


The mission involves sending astronauts into a low-earth orbit in 2025, using Launch Vehicle Mark-3 (LVM-3). The rocket LVM-3, which will take the crew to orbit. The rocket will have ‘human rating’ of the vehicle.  An environmental control and life support system ‘ECLSS’ has been developed as a part of the system which is basically for controlling the temperat


The Supreme Court (SC) collegium has recommended transfer of 24 judges across various High courts in spite of requests for reconsideration of the move. Article 222 of the Constitution: Deals with transfer of a Judge (including Chief Justice) from one High Court to any other High Court. The proposal for transfer of a High Court Judge originates from the Chief Justice of India, who have a


The Dhanauri Wetlands is a birdwatching area located in Dhanauri village near Dankaur in Uttar Pradesh, India. The Dhanauri Wetlands is home to over 120 Sarus cranes Sarus Cranes is the state bird of Uttar Pradesh. IUCN status - Vulnerable CITES -Appendix ll Omnivorous, eating insects (especially grasshoppers), aquatic plants, fish (perhaps only in captivity), frogs, crus


``   Estivation is when animals are dormant because weather conditions are very hot and dry. Their breathing rate, heart rate and metabolic rate decrease to conserve energy under these harsh conditions. Humans estivate during the winter months as well as some of these animals.  A few animals on this list include water-holding frog the desert tortoise


KAZIRANGA SANCTUARY     Kaziranga National Park is a national park of the state of Assam, India. The park, hosts two-thirds of the world's Indian rhinoceroses It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site It is recognized as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International for conservation of avifaunal species. The park area


SOLAR ECLIPSE   A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun. An annular solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is smaller than the Sun's, blocking most of the Sun's light and causing the Sun to look like an annulus (ring). An annular solar eclipse occurred on October 14, 2023. Solar

Green Credit

Green Credit     It is a special programme that allows an individual or entity to earn Green Credit and trade it on a dedicated exchange. Green Credit refers to a unit of an incentive provided for specified activities that deliver a positive impact on the environment. It is launched at the national level to leverage a competitive market-based approach for incentiv


CHERIYAPANI     Cheriyapani is a high-speed craft will ply from Nagapattinam in T.N. to Kankesanthurai in the northern province of Sri Lanka. It shall involve a 4-hour journey between India and Sri Lanka. The vessel can accommodate 150 passengers on board and the one-way ticket for travel will cost around ₹7,670. The Nagapattinam port It


HEPATITIS C     Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver, a type of viral hepatitis. HCV is spread primarily by Blood-to-blood contact associated with injection drug use Poorly sterilized medical equipment Needlestick injuries in healthcare Tran


Why in News? IIT Bombay-incubated Immunoadoptive Cell Therapy (ImmunoACT) has received Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation’s (CDSCO) marketing authorisation approval. ImmunoACT shall be the ‘first’ humanised CD19-targeted Chimeric Antigen Receptor T cell (CAR-T cell) therapy product for relapsed/refractory B-cell lymphomas and leukaemia (blood cancer) in India.

Curative petition

What is Curative petition It acts the last resort for a petitioner for protection from the compensation of injustice in the court after the review petition is dismissed or has been exhausted. It is a judicial innovation by the Supreme Court of India in Rupa Ashok Hurra vs. Ashok Hurra and Anr. (2002) case. Such petitions are considered to cure gross miscarriage of just

Sikkim flash floods - Chungthang dam

Why in News There is a popular folk tale in Sikkim about two rivers, the male Rangeet and female Rungnyu (Teesta), and how the Rangeet turned back angrily after losing a race. In 2021, a protest song gave a modern twist to this tale, referring to the Teesta's rage at hydropower projects. On October 4, 2022, the South Lhonak glacial lake in northwest Sikkim breached its embankment

Gaza Strip

  Gaza strip is a narrow piece of land located on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea It is bordered by Israel to the east and north, and Egypt to the southwest.  It is ranked as the third most densely populated in the world with a population of 2 million in just 365 square kilometers of land area. It is one of the two Palesti

Global hunger Index

Global hunger Index       India has been ranked 111th out of 125 countries in the Global Hunger Index 2023. The index is published on an annual basis by Concern Worldwide and Welthungerhilfe. India has a score of 28.7, indicating a serious level of hunger, ranking after neighbouring countries of Pakistan (102nd), Bangladesh (81st), Nepal (69th) and Sri Lan

P20 Summit

P20 Summit     The 9th G20 Parliamentary Speakers' Summit (P20) will be inaugurated by India and will be hosted by the Parliament of India under the broader framework of India's G20 presidency. It will have 4 main sessions: Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Showcasing Achievements, Accelerating Progress Sustainable Energy Transit

Adi Kailash

Adi Kailash     Adi Kailash, also known as Shiva Kailash, Chota Kailash, Baba Kailash or Jonglingkong Peak, is a mountain located in the Himalayan Mountain range in the Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand, India. It is the second most important peak among the group of five separate peaks in Himalayas, others include

Mundra Port

Mundra Port     It is India's first private port and largest container port in India. It is located on the northern shores of the Gulf of Kutch near Mundra, Kutch district of Gujarat. Incorporated in 2003, it became India's first multi-product port-based special economic zone.  Formerly operated by Mundra Port and Speci

Operation Polo

Operation Polo     When India became free on August 15, 1947, Hyderabad remained independent citing the communal bonhomie, size of the kingdom and its infrastructure. But on September 13, 1948, Indian Army attacked from four frontiers and annexed the princely state. Hyderabad was one of wealthiest and most powerful principality which was ruled by Nizam,&

Vizhinjam port

Vizhinjam port     It is located in Vizhinjam, Kerala and has a natural depth of 18 metres. It is a deep-sea water port developed as India’s first Mega deepwater Transshipment Container Terminal. It is the only container transshipment hub in the Indian subcontinent closest to the international shipping routes, and is centrally located on the Indian coastline

Operation Ajay

Operation Ajay     It is an ongoing operation conducted by the Indian Armed Forces to evacuate Indian citizens from Israel & palestine in the 2023 Israel–Hamas war. The government will bring back its citizens through special chartered flights. The Indian Navy shall be mobilised if need arises. Around 18,000 Indians are in Israel

GI tag for Goan Cashew

GI tag for Goan Cashew     Goan cashew, derived from the Portuguese name ‘caju’ or ‘kaju’ in Konkani. Cashew, native to northeast Brazil in Latin America was introduced to Goa by the Portuguese in the 16th century (1570). Significance of providing GI tag for Goan Cashew: Traders and processors have to comply with the norms of quality,

Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary

Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary     The sanctuary lies in the Indo-Chinese transition zone and so has highly endemic and significant flora and fauna species. The sanctuary has been named after the Dibang River, a tributary of Brahmaputra River.  It lies adjacent to the Mouling National Park. Has been declared as one of the major bio-diversity hotspots of the

Kamlang Tiger Reserve (TR)

Kamlang Tiger Reserve (TR)     The Kamlang TR is present in Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh and is contiguous to the Namdhapa Tiger Reserve. It is home to all four big cats - tiger, leopard, clouded leopard and snow leopard. It also has several species of hornbills such as Rufous-necked hornbills and Wreathed hornbills that visits in the winters. 

Tele Manas Seva

Tele Manas Seva     Tele Mental Health Assistance and Networking Across States (Tele MANAS) was introduced in the Union Budget 2022. The Tele MANAS entrusted the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) to guide its overall implementation.  Ranking from first to third, in the larger States category, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh were aw

WACE pattern-Cyclones

WACE pattern-Cyclones     Cyclogenesis is an indicator that denotes the chance of a cyclone forming. It depends on parameters such as   Sea surface temperature The ocean heat content Change in winds from the surface into the upper atmosphere (or the vertical shear) Rotation of winds near the surface. A rapid increase in the cyclogenesis p


PHONOTAXIS     Phonotaxis is defined as the movement by an animal in response to a sound. It has usually observed among crickets, moths, frogs, and toads, among a few other creatures. Two types of phonotaxis include: Positive phonotaxis Its purpose is attraction It happens when the females of a particular species are attracted to the sounds mad


JIVITPUTRIKA FESTIVAL   Jitiya (also called Jivitputrika) is a 3 day long Hindu festival celebrated from the 7th to 9th lunar day of Krishna-Paksha in Ashvin month.  The festival is celebrated in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Jharkhand as well as Nepali people of West Bengal. The three-day long fes


THE DHOLE OR ASIATIC WILD DOG      It is the only endangered wild pack-living canid in the tropical Indian forests It is considered at high risk of extinction with endangered category on the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List The diurnal activity of the dholes had the highest temporal overlap with leopards and the lowest with clou


LIDAR     LIDAR stands for “light detection and ranging” or “laser imaging, detection, and ranging”. It is a method for determining ranges by targeting a surface with a laser and measuring the time for the reflected light to return to the receiver (time of flight). LIDAR scanning or 3D laser scanning involves s

Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating       Radiocarbon dating (carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon. Radiocarbon (14C) is constantly created in the Earth’s atmospher

OTOP1 protein

OTOP1 protein     Japanese scientist Kikunae Ikeda first proposed umami as a basic taste in addition to sweet, sour, salty and bitter which was officially agreed the scientific community after 80 years. Now, it has been found that the tongue responds to ammonium chloride (salmiak salt), which has been recognised as a 6th basic sense. The tongue responds

R21 Malaria vaccine

R21 Malaria vaccine     The R21/Matrix-M™ malaria vaccine developed by the University of Oxford and the Serum Institute of India has been recommended for use by the World Health Organization (WHO). The vaccine was developed by leveraging Novavax’s adjuvant technology. The vaccine has met the requirements of safety, quality and effectiveness standards.

Global amphibian assessment

Global amphibian assessment     The assessment is coordinated by the Amphibian Red List Authority, a branch of the Amphibian Specialist Group of the IUCN’s Species Survival Commission. The assessment has revealed that, 2 out of every 5 amphibians are threatened with extinction.  Between 2004 and 2022, a few critical threats have pushed more than

India Steel

India Steel     Indian steel companies plan to raise prices of various grades of the alloy due to rising import costs of coking coal.  Australia accounts for over 50% of its coking coal imports of around 55-60 million metric tonne a year. India also meets its coking coal requirements by importing from Russia and the United States. India su

Open Market Operations (OMO)

Open Market Operations (OMO)     It refers to the purchase and sale of securities (treasury bills and government securities) in open market by the central bank of any country. This is done to regulate money supply in the economy. OMO is one of the most important ways of monetary control that is exercised by the central banks.  The central bank sells securit

OIML Certificates

OIML Certificates     India (Legal Metrology Division, Department of Consumer Affairs) has become one among the 13 countries in the world to become an OIML certificate-issuing authority. OIML stands for International Organisation of Legal Metrology, established in 1955 with headquartered in Paris. OIML is an international standard-setting body that develops m

Sammakka Saralamma Jatara

Sammakka Saralamma Jatara     The Union cabinet approved the Sarakka Central Tribal University in Telangana to be set up at a cost of Rs 889 crore. The Mulugu district of Telangana holds the Sammakka Saralamma Jatara, a biennial festival. The jatara is considered among the largest gatherings of tribal people in the world and also attracts the largest number o

Bekal Fort

Bekal Fort     Bekal Fort is a medieval fort built by Shivappa Nayaka of Keladi in 1650 AD, at Bekal.  It is the largest fort in Kerala. The fort appears to emerge from the sea and about three-quarters of its exterior lies in contact with water. The fort does not include any palaces or mansions as it was not an administrative centre. The

Green Drought

Green Drought     Green drought is when the vegetation may appear green on the top, but there is stunted growth and soil moisture stress for more than a month impacting yield drastically. This phenomenon is particularly problematic because it can be challenging to detect and monitor. Karnataka has urged to conduct an assessment on the ‘green drought’ p

Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI)

Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) IRDAI cuts minimum capital requirement for foreign reinsurance branches from Rs 100 crore to Rs 50 crores with the provision to repatriate any excess assigned capital. The move is intended to Increase the overall capacity of the reinsurance sector to accommodate growing demand and manage larger risks. broader goa

BlueWalker 3 satellite

BlueWalker 3 satellite     It is a prototype satellite, part of a satellite constellation planned by its owner AST SpaceMobile. The satellite is intended to deliver mobile or broadband services anywhere in the world. BlueWalker 3 was observed as one of the brightest objects in the night sky, outshining all but the brightest stars. However, concerns are raised ar

Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana

Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana     It was launched by the Government of India in 2016 to provide free LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) connections to women from below-poverty-line households. The objective of the scheme was to make clean cooking fuel such as LPG available to the rural and deprived households and discourage usage of traditional cooking fuels. Use of tr

National Turmeric Board

National Turmeric Board     Aims to provide leadership in all matters related to turmeric, coordinate with relevant government agencies, particularly the Spices Board, and spearhead efforts to advance the turmeric sector within the country.  The key objective of the board is to raise awareness and consumption of turmeric domestically and internationally. 

National Investment Infrastructure Fund (NIIF)

National Investment Infrastructure Fund (NIIF)     The NIIF was launched in 2015 as India’s first state-backed fund. JBIC will contribute 51 per cent of that figure and the rest will be contributed by India. for enhancing infrastructure financing by investing in greenfield (new), brownfield (existing) and stalled projects. The fund was set up as Category II

International Criminal Court (ICC)

International Criminal Court (ICC)   ICC is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal having headquarters at The Hague, Netherlands. It is the first and only permanent international court with jurisdiction to prosecute  individuals for the international crimes of genocide crimes ag

Purchasing Manager’s Index

Purchasing Manager’s Index   It is an index that reflects the prevailing direction of economic trends in the manufacturing and service sectors. It has a diffusion index that summarizes whether market conditions are expanding, staying the same, or contracting as viewed by purchasing managers. It is a monthly survey released by the Institute for Supply Manag

Pension Scheme

Pension Scheme   The Old Pension Scheme: It is a retirement scheme approved by the central government that provides monthly pension to the beneficiaries till the end of their life service.  The amount of pension released monthly shall be equal to half of the last drawn salary by an individual before retirement. Also called as Defined Contribution scheme. In

OIML Certificates

OIML Certificates     India (Legal Metrology Division, Department of Consumer Affairs) has become one among the 13 countries in the world to become an OIML certificate-issuing authority. OIML stands for International Organisation of Legal Metrology, established in 1955 with headquartered in Paris. OIML is an international standard-setting body that develops m

Cholera cases

Cholera cases   Cholera is a water-borne disease affecting the small intestine of a person, which can be diagnosed by a stool test or a rapid dipstick test. It is caused by two strains of the bacteria Vibrio cholerae called O1 and O139. While O1 is responsible for almost all outbreaks, outbreaks of O139 have been rare and none recorded outside Asia so far.&

Lagrange Points

Lagrange Points   They are points in space between celestial bodies where a spacecraft stays more or less stationary. Lagrange points are found along the plane of two objects in orbit around their common centre of gravity, where their gravitational forces cancel each other, so that a third body of negligible mass w

R21 Malaria vaccine

R21 Malaria vaccine   The R21/Matrix-M™ malaria vaccine developed by the University of Oxford and the Serum Institute of India has been recommended for use by the World Health Organization (WHO). The vaccine was developed by leveraging Novavax’s adjuvant technology. The vaccine has met the requirements of safety, quality and effectiveness standards. Malaria:

Karman Line

Karman Line Kármán Line is a boundary located at 100 km above sea level. It is an imaginary line that demarcates the earth’s atmosphere from space. A record-keeping body called Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) established this boundary in the 1960s. Any individual who crosses this line qualifies to be an astronaut. The

Kosi River

Kosi River   It is a transboundary river which flows through China, Nepal and India.  It drains the northern slopes of the Himalayas in Tibet and the southern slopes in Nepal. The Kosi River is also known as Saptakoshi for its seven upper tributaries which includes: Tamur river Arun river Sun Kosi The trib

Bacteria Wolbachia

Bacteria Wolbachia   It is a genus of intracellular bacteria that infects mainly arthropod species, including a high proportion of insects, and also some nematodes. It is the most common parasitic microbes, and is possibly the most common reproductive parasite, with as many as 25 to 70% of all insect species are

TrueNat Test

TrueNat Test   TrueNat is a is a chip-based, battery-operated RT-PCR kit for point-of-care and rapid molecular test for diagnosis of infectious diseases. RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase- Polymerase Chain Reaction) employs reverse transcription process that converts RNA into DNA molecule before the gene can be captured in the test. It was used as a screening test during COVI


Jellyfish Jellyfish are mainly free-swimming marine animals with umbrella-shaped bells and trailing tentacles, while some tend to be immobile anchored to the seabed by stalks. The tentacles are armed with stinging cells and used to capture prey and defend against predators. They are found all over the world, from surface waters to the deep sea, from marine to freshwater, b

“Moscow Format” meeting

“Moscow Format” meeting India attended the nine-nation “Moscow Format” meeting, in the Russian city of Kazan. The meet was attended by Russia, India, China, Iran, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey were invited guests at the event.  The Moscow format: A di

Poona pact

Poona pact     The pact was a historic compromise between Gandhi and Ambedkar over the rights of Dalits, or "untouchables", in 1932. It was an agreement on political representation of the Depressed Classes. A communal award giving separate electorates for the scheduled castes in central and provincial legislatures was given by Ramsay Macdo

Age of Consent

Age of Consent     The age of consent is the minimum age at which an individual is considered legally old enough to consent to participation in sexual activity. The current age of consent in India is 18 years. Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act criminalises all sexual activity by children under 18. Prosecution for statutory rape o

Manaskhand Temple Circuit

Manaskhand Temple Circuit     It connects Uttarakhand to tourist destinations the Kumaon region. It shall connect ancient and revered temples across various districts to provide a rich spiritual heritage of the region. The project will connect Jageshwar temple, Kainchi Dham, Mukteshwar, Purnagiri temple, and Golu Devta temple. The temple circuit c

Mahendragiri stealth frigate

Mahendragiri stealth frigate       It is the 7th stealth frigate under the Indian Navy's Project named after Mahendragiri mountain peak of the Eastern ghats, located in Odisha. It is also the last Nilgiri-Class stealth frigate for Indian navy. It was built by Mazagaon dock shipbuilders Ltd. as a part of achieving the goal of AtmaNirbhar Bharat and

Kakrapar Atomic Power project (KAPP3)

Kakrapar Atomic Power project (KAPP3)     It is the largest indigenously developed 700-megawatt electric (MWe) nuclear power reactor unit in Gujarat attained it first criticality in 2020, has started operations in 2023. First criticality signifies the initiation of a controlled, but sustained nuclear fission reaction in the nuclear power plant. It is a variant of

Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal Antibodies     Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-made proteins that mimic the behaviour of antibodies produced by the immune system to protect against diseases and foreign substances It attaches itself to an antigen such as Glycoproteins (a foreign substance, usually a disease-causing molecule) and helps the immune system eliminate it from the body.

Short Selling

Short Selling     The Enforcement Directorate’s preliminary investigation has concluded that the “top beneficiaries” of short selling in shares of Adani Group companies, post release of the Hindenburg Research report and the subsequent market crash, are based in tax havens. Short sellers are investors who believe and bet that sh

Shiv Shakti, Tiranga, Jawahar Sthal

Shiv Shakti, Tiranga, Jawahar Sthal       The touch down sites of spacecrafts send to the lunar surface has been named recently. After Chandrayaan-1 mission of 2008, the site where the probe crashed (as it was meant to for the purposes of the mission), was named “Jawahar Sthal” after the first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. Chandrayaan-3 lan

Article 35A

Article 35A     It empowers the Jammu and Kashmir Legislature to define “permanent residents” of the State and provide them special privileges and rights.  It was added to the Constitution through a presidential order, i.e., The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954 under Article 370. The privileges included:

Alai Darwaza

Alai Darwaza     Alai Darwaza, one of the four gates to the Qutub complex housing Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque was built by Alauddin Khilji in 1311 AD. The other three gates were not completed because of Alauddin’s death. The mosque was commissioned by Qutb-ud-din Aibak and partly expanded by Shamsuddin Altamash later. They were expanded further under the


Echolocation     A technique in which animals or devices emits sound waves, and listens for their reflections by objects in their surroundings. The sound waves emitted will be in the nature of high-frequency sound pulses, often beyond the range of human hearing.  Bats due to their poor eyesight uses this ability to hunt and navigate in the dark, while do

B20 Summit

B20 Summit     The Business 20 (B20) is an event which is part of the G20 Summit which is meant to express common views from the international business community. The main purpose is to develop recommendations and issue relevant commitments from the business leaders and business organizations to deal with present issues. B20 are gathered in 12 working groups which

Omega Fatty acids

Omega Fatty acids Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or called as “essential” fatty acids are Omega-3 and Omega-6. They play in controlling two key body processes: Blood clotting Inflammation. It prepares the body to fight back infection and injury but for prolonged periods can also cause severe damage and chronic illnesses. Both have to be in right ratio to

Seethakali Folk art

Seethakali Folk art     A Dravidian dance drama primarily performed by Dalit artists belonging to the Veda and Pulaya communities of Kerala, first performed some 150 years back. It presents minuscule episodes of the Ramayana at every homestead, portions from vanayatra (exile to the forest) to Sita’s andardhanam (descend into the earth).&nbs

Picoflare jets

Picoflare jets     Picoflare jets are small jets of charged particles that are expelled intermittently from the corona of the Sun, at supersonic speeds. They could emanate from coronal holes where the sun’s magnetic field stretches into the space. The picoflare jets could supply energy and plasma to the solar wind (a c

The House Crow

The House Crow     The house crow (Corvus splendens), also known as the Indian, greynecked, Ceylon or Colombo crow, is a common bird of the crow family that is of Asian origin. Its size ranges in size  of 40 cm (16 in) in length. It has a widespread distribution in southern Asia, being native to

India Smart Cities Award Contest (ISAC), 2022:

India Smart Cities Award Contest (ISAC), 2022:     It was launched to reward the cities, projects and innovative ideas promoting smart development in cities as an outcome of Smart Cities Mission, which was launched in 2015 to transform 100 cities into sustainable and livable urban centres. The awards are announced by The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.

Chabahar port

Chabahar port     India and Iran have agreed that disputes at Chabahar will not go for commercial arbitration in foreign courts but take investment arbitration or any other mode of dispute settlement. The arbitration will be pursued under rules framed by the UN Commission on International Trade Law This shall enable long-term agreement and boost investor confidenc

Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI)

Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI)     IRDAI cuts minimum capital requirement for foreign reinsurance branches from Rs 100 crore to Rs 50 crores with the provision to repatriate any excess assigned capital. The move is intended to Increase the overall capacity of the reinsurance sector to accommodate growing demand and manage

Honey Bees

Honey Bees     The Muğla region in Bayram mountains of Turkey which produces almost all of the world's pine honey from Mugla Bees, ravaged by 2021 wildfires is yet to recover to pre-wildfire production levels. Honey bees are all native to mainland Afro-Eurasia. The western honey bee, (Apis mellifera) has been domesticated for honey production and cr

Right to Information (RTI) Act

Right to Information (RTI) Act     Why in the News? Recently, Hundreds of RTI applications and their responses from Union public authorities have been missing from the RTIOnline website. The Right to Information (RTI) Act, 2005: The law empowers Indian citizens to seek information from a Public Authority. Thus, it makes the Government and its functionaries

ASTRA Missile

ASTRA Missile     LIGHT COMBAT Aircraft (LCA) Tejas has successfully fired the ASTRA indigenous Beyond Visual Range (BVR) air-to-air missile. ASTRA is a state-of-the-art BVR air-to-air missile. It is developed to engage and destroy highly manoeuvring supersonic aerial targets. It has been designed and developed by Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRD

Sugar industry in ethanol sourcing

Sugar industry in ethanol sourcing The Niti Aayog envisages requirement of 1,400 crore litres of ethanol to achieve 20% blending by 2025-2026.  Nearly 550 crore litres of ethanol have been produced and 450 crore litres of it came from the sugar industry and the remaining from maize and damaged grain, in 2022. Molasses, a byproduct of sugar processing, are currently being used for bi

DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organisation)

DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organisation)     A Research & Development wing of the Ministry of Defence, Govt of India. It aims to empower India with cutting-edge defence technologies to achieve self-reliance in critical defence technologies and systems. It also intends to equip the armed forces with state-of-the-art weapon systems and equipment

Murmansk port

    Murmansk port is the main northern gateway of Russia and a transshipment hub, located about 2,000 km northwest of Moscow. Recently, India accounts for 35% of cargo handled by Murmansk port constituting the maximum share of cargo handled by the port this year, Turkey and China were among other countries served by the Murmansk port with a share of 34% and 19%

Survey at Corbett Tiger Reserve

About 275 bird species, including two critically endangered, four vulnerable ones and two endangered species, were counted during a survey at Corbett Tiger Reserve. Two endangered species — Pallas’s fish-eagle, Egyptian vulture and four vulnerable bird species — great hornbill, great slaty woodpecker, grey-crowned prinia and river tern — have been counted in the survey

Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs)

It is an international financial institution established by two or more countries for the purpose of encouraging economic development in poorer nations. It consists of member nations from both developed and developing countries. It intends to provide loans and grants to member nations to fund projects to support social and economic development in the areas of infrastructu

Transfer of High court judges

The Supreme Court (SC) collegium has recommended transfer of 24 judges across various High courts in spite of requests for reconsideration of the move. Article 222 of the Constitution: Deals with transfer of a Judge (including Chief Justice) from one High Court to any other High Court. The proposal for transfer of a High Court Judge originates from the Chief

Legionella bacteria

The UK govt has put the asylum-seekers on a housing barge after the detection of traces the bacteria causing Legionnaire’s disease were found in the onboard water system. The bacteria can be found in lakes and Ponds and also in other water systems. If such water containing thus bacteria is consumed, the bacteria can reach the lungs and cause pneumonia and a mild flu-like illn


    Aadhar enrolment devices across the country is set to be integrated with NavIC. Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC), a regional navigation satellite system was formerly known as Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is an Indian version of the American GPS. It was established to meet the positioning, navigation and timing requirements of th

Lymphatic Filariasis

Lymphatic Filariasis India is committed to eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis by the year 2027, three years ahead of the global target of 2030. Lymphatic filariasis, commonly known as elephantiasis, is a neglected tropical disease.     It is caused by mosquitoes when they transmit filarial parasites (classified as nematodes) to humans causing infection. Three

Hydrogen for Heritage Scheme

Hydrogen for Heritage Scheme The scheme aims to revolutionise the railway industry by incorporating hydrogen fuel cells as an alternative to diesel engines. The Indian Railways has planned to operate 35 Hydrogen-powered trains to run across 8 heritage routes that are environmentally sensitive hilly regions with a potential for tourism. The project thus promotes clean energy sources with

Kerala to Keralam

Kerala to Keralam The Kerala’s Legislative Assembly has unanimously passed a resolution to rename the state as Keralam by adding a suffix ‘m’ to its existing name in the Constitution and official records. The rationale behind the move is that it seeks convergence with its Malayalam name ‘Keralam’, as states were formed on the basis of the language in the S

Quit India Movement

Quit India Movement Also known as August movement or Bharat chodo Andolan. It was an important Civil Disobedience Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Congress on August 8, 1942. It was launched during the Second World war when the Participation of British in the war has strained the resources of India and the threat of Japanese invasion was becoming real.

Coastal Aquaculture Authority Bill

Coastal Aquaculture Authority Bill The bill seeks to amend the Coastal Aquaculture Authority Act, 2005. The bill expands the scope of coastal aquaculture by including allied activities also, Shrimp Prawn Fish Any other Aquatic life in saline or brackish water Newly included allied activities

Assam Rifles

Assam Rifles The Manipur police has registered a Criminal case against the Assam Rifles on the charges of ‘arrogant act’ of letting the accused Kuki militants to escape freely to a safe zone, ‘obstruction of duty’ and ‘criminal intimidation’ in the ongoing Manipur violence. History of Assam Rifles: The Assam Rifles (AR) is the oldest paramilitar

No-Confidence Motion

No-Confidence Motion Article 75 of the Constitution - Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. This means that the ministry stays in office as long as it enjoys the confidence of the lower house. This effectively gives power to the Lok Sabha to remove the ministry from the office by passing No-confidence motion. Therefore, it has been used as a tool for

G20 Anti-Corruption Working Group

G20 Anti-Corruption Working Group   The Action Plan is guided by the political declaration of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGASS) against corruption. The ACWG focuses on promotion of international cooperation in the areas of Asset recovery Law enforcement cooperation Information-sharing Technology Denial of safe haven/entry The ACWG also seeks to

Block chain Technology

Block chain Technology A distributed ledger technology that enables a layer of trust and eliminates the need for a third party to validate the transactions. It is an amalgamation of various technologies such as distributed systems, cryptography. Blocks are secured with proper security against tampering using any cryptographic hash algorithms. Transactions are validated and ve

Royal Bengal Tiger

Royal Bengal Tiger                                                             The 5

PM SHRI schools

PM SHRI schools PM Schools for Rising India (PM SHRI) is a centrally sponsored scheme to be implemented by Government of India over a period of 5 years (2022-23 to 2026-27). The framework aims to develop more than 14500 PM SHRI Schools managed by Central government/State/UT Government/local bodies. Its implementation shall help in building an equitable, inclusive, and plural soc

Economic Community of West African Nations (ECOWAS)

A regional political and Economic union of 15 West African nations established in 1975 with the signing of Treaty of Lagos. The goal of ECOWAS is to achieve  "collective self-sufficiency" " for its member states by creating a single large trade bloc by building a full economic and trading union. It also serves as a Peacekeeping force in the region includin

National Deep Tech Startup Policy

A.  Aims to bolster the growth of Startup ecosystem through optimal policy interventions access to funding strengthening Intellectual Property Regime (IPR) Sustaining Deep tech startups. Enabling shared infrastructure and resource sharing. B. The draft outlines four key pillars Securing India’s economic future. Knowledge-driven economy bolstering national c

Engel's law

Engel's law It states that, as income increases, the proportion of income spent on food decreases, even if absolute expenditure on food rises. As the economy grows with increases income in the hands of the people, this trend can be witnessed. This formed the basis for reduction in weightage of food in the CPI basket from 60.9 (1960) to 46.2 (2001).

Nature Restoration Law

Nature Restoration Law A biodiversity bill initiated by the European Commission in the EU Parliament was passed. It aims to recover degraded ecosystems by reclamation of forested areas, marine habitats and growing birds, bees in the farmlands. Indicates Europe's commitment to achieving green goals and climate adaptation goals.

Crawford Lake

Crawford Lake Location- Ontario in Canada The lake's bottom sediments has provided evidence for beginning of Anthropocene epoch ( present geological time scale during which earth's ecosystem has degraded due to human activities especially after Industrial revolution) The lake bottom sediments contained burned fossil fuels, exploded nuclear weapons, plastic and fertilizers dumped

Waorani community

Waorani community     The Huaorani, Waorani, or Waodani, also known as the Waos, are an Indigenous people from the Amazonian Region of Ecuador. They comprise almost 4,000 inhabitants and speak the Huaorani language. Their language is distinct and unrelated to any other known tongue, including Quechua, which is commonly spoken in

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