Daily News Analysis

Daily News Analysis

Vikramaditya Vedic Clock

Overview: The Prime Minister recently inaugurated the Vikramaditya Vedic Clock, which is mounted on an 85-foot tower within Jantar Mantar in Ujjain. About Vikramaditya Vedic Clock: It is the world’s first 'Vedic Clock', designed to display time according to the ancient Indian traditional Panchang (time calculation system). It has been positioned on an 85-foot tower with

What is Doomsday Glacier

Overview: Unveiling new details about Antarctica's "Doomsday Glacier", scientists have revealed that the Thwaites Glacier has been losing ice since the 1940s. About Doomsday Glacier: Thwaites Glacier, also known as the “Doomsday Glacier,” is located in the remote Amundsen Sea in West Antarctica. It’s a wide and fast-flowing glacier, roughly the size of F

What is Neolithic Period

Overview: Researchers recently unearthed an ancient burial site of a child with a pot beside it likely dating back to the neolithic period, at Chettimedu Pathur near Chennai. About Neolithic Period: The Neolithic Period, also called the New Stone Age, is the final stage of cultural evolution or technological development among prehistoric humans. The term Neolithic is most frequently

Naiyandi Melam

A naiyandi melam is a type of percussion instrument that is unique to Tamil Nadu, Kerala and parts of South India. It is performed by artistes of different communities. The word, naiyandi, means making fun. Naiyandi melam follows a set of tunes, beginning with ‘thooku’.

Copper Reserves

India to send industry delegation for copper mining opportunities in Zambia. The Mines Ministry has proposed sending an Indian industry delegation to copper-rich Zambia to discuss potential copper exploration and mining projects in the southern African country. China Nonferrous Mining Corporation (CNMC) is among the largest producers of copper in Zambia. Copper Copper is a goo

Practice of Veli

In a fishing village of Andhra Pradesh, the practice of social boycott among the Vaddi community has adverse social and economic consequences. Veli is the practice of social boycott. Those subjected to social ostracisation are not allowed to speak to other villagers and in some cases, compelled to abandon their homes and seek refuge elsewhere. Many times, the veli is motivated by p

Somnath Temple

Prime Minister will inaugurate the Ram temple in Ayodhya, 73 years ago; the President of India inaugurated another temple in a grand ceremony. Located in - Prabhas Patan, Veraval, in Gujarat. Significance - It is the holy place of the first Aadi Jyotirling Shree Somnath Mahadev, among the twelve Jyotirlinga shrines of Shiva. It is also the place where Lord Shri Krishna to

Kinmen Island

Context: Presidential elections are scheduled in Taiwan on 13th January in which Kinmen residents are preparing to vote. About: Governance: Kinmen, also known as Quemoy, comprises a cluster of islands under the jurisdiction of Taiwan. Location in Relation to China: Geographical Position: Positioned on the southeastern coast of the People’s Republic of China

Kuki Tribe

Context: Manipur Chief Minister has said that the state government may consider setting up a committee to discuss the Scheduled Tribe status of Kukis in the state. Background: The Manipur conflict, initiated in early May, originated from a High Court directive suggesting the examination of Scheduled Tribe (ST) status for the Meitei community. This proposal faced opposition from th

Parakram Diwas

PM to participate in programme marking Parakram Diwas (Day of Valor) at Red Fort. The programme will commemorate the legacy of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose and the Azad Hind Fauj. January 23, 2024 was commemorated as the 126th birth anniversary of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose.

Biswanath Ghat

Biswanath Ghat is a village in Assam, located on the banks of the Brahmaputra River and is known as "Gupta Kashi". The name "Gupta Kashi" is a comparison to Kashi during the Gupta Empire era. The village is named after the ancient Biswanath temple, a prominent religious site for centuries. Biswanath Ghat is also known for its ghat, island, and temple built by t

Swami Vivekananda Jayanti 2024

Context: The Art Institute of Chicago is radiating with the spirit of enlightenment as it celebrates Vivekananda Jayanti 2024, also known as National Youth Day, transforming its historic staircase into a beacon of unity adorned with the immortal words of Swami Vivekananda’s iconic 1893 speech.  About Swami Vivekananda: Swami Vivekananda, initially named Narendra Nath Dutta, was

Zanskar River

The Zanskar River is a tributary of the Indus River. It originates from the Doda and Lungnak rivers, and flows entirely within Ladakh. The Zanskar River's headwaters are known as the Tsarap Chu, and originate from the snows of the Himalayas. The river's entire catchment area is formed by glaciers.

Veerbhadra Temple

The temple is dedicated to the deity Veerabhadra, the fiery form of Lord Shiva. The temple is closely associated with the Ramayana. Top of Form It was built during the 16th century, the architectural features of the temple are in the Vijayanagara style with profusion of carvings and paintings. The Veerabhadra Swamy temple and the Nandi statue in Lepakshi, India w

Aravali Range – Facts

The Supreme Court recently opined that if the State of Rajasthan believes that the mining activities in the Aravali Range pose a threat to the environment, it can also prevent mining activities in the Aravalli Range. About Aravalli Range It is a mountain range located in northwestern India. It is one of the oldest fold mountains in the world. It runs approxima

Swachh Survekshan 2023

Context: The President of India, Smt. Droupadi Murmu conferred Swachh Survekshan awards 2023 at Bharat Mandapam, New Delhi hosted by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA).  News: 13 awardees received felicitations under categories of Clean Cities, Cleanest Cantonment, SafaiMitra Suraksha, Ganga Towns and Best Performing State were given away. This year the cleanest

Harni lake

Harni Motnath Lake is a green lake in Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

Nagara style- RAM MANDIR

The Ram temple in Ayodhya will be inaugurated on January 22. The complex is in the Nagara style of temple architecture, designed by 81-year-old Chandrakant Sompura and his 51-year-old son Ashish. Nagara style Nagara architecture is a classical architecture of temple design in northern India, contrasted with Dravida architecture in southern India. Nagara temples have a&n

Swachh Survekshan

Context: For the seventh year in a row, Indore has been ranked as the cleanest city in India under the Central government’s annual Swachh Survekshan Awards 2023, announced on Thursday (January 11). Background: When the Awards first began in 2016, Indore ranked at number 25. Swachh Survekshan: It was initiated in 2016 and constitutes the world's largest urban sanita

Fo Guang Shan

Fo Guang Shan Cultural and Educational Centre, received registration under ‘religious, cultural, economic, educational and social purpose’ category recently. Fo Guang Shan (FGS) is one of the largest Buddhist organization and monastic order based in Taiwan. The name translates to "Buddha's Light Mountain". FGS practices Humanistic Buddhism,


Munagapaka is a village in the Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Munagapaka, known for sugarcane cultivation, is gearing up to organise the 15th edition of the traditional sports like Horse, bullock cart races during Sankranti. The races were quite different from Jallikattu organised in Tamil Nadu or similar competitions held in Krishna and Guntur.

Gulf of Aden

Indian Navy’s destroyer INS Visakhapatnam responds to distress call from drone-hit merchant vessel in Gulf of Aden. It is a deep-water basin that forms a natural sea link between the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea. Geography – It is an arm of the Indian Ocean that runs in a west-east direction, is located between Yemen on the so

Prehistoric Rock Paintings in Tamil Nadu

The Tamil Nadu government has planned to declare the entire hillocks of Alampadi, Melvalai, and Sethavarai a protected monument. All 3 sites are located in Villupuram district of Tamil Nadu. Melvalai – A nondescript village whose paintings dates back to 3000 B.C. and majority of etchings was in red ochre. The word, Rattapparai, has become synon

Pravasi Bharatiya Divas (PBD)

Pravasi Bharatiya Divas, also known as Non-Resident Indian (NRI) Day, flagship event of the Ministry of External Affairs is celebrated on January 9 every year. Aim - To mark the contribution and achievements of the overseas Indian community to the development of India. It’s a day to acknowledge the achievements of Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) and Persons of

Civil society under siege, in India

Context: The article discusses the threats faced by India’s civic space, particularly organizations fighting against communalism. Emphasizes the importance of protecting constitutional freedoms. Key highlights: Constitutional liberties face challenges within India's diverse and lively civil society. Groups actively combating communalism encounter intense assaults, impacting th

Polar Bear Dies of Avian Flu in the Arctic

Context: The Arctic region has reported the first case of death of a polar bear due to the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI). News: The Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation reported the discovery of a deceased bear in the vicinity of Utqiagvik, Alaska's northernmost community. The first detection of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in the Arctic regio

International Purple Fest 2024

The International Purple Fest 2024 is a global celebration of inclusivity and empowerment that is being held in Goa. The festival aims to promote the rights of people with disabilities and create a platform for them to showcase their talents and abilities.

Vellayani Lake

Vellayani Lake of Punchakkari wetland is the largest freshwater lake in Trivandrum, Kerala. The Vellayani Devi Temple, dedicated to Goddess Bhadrakali, is located on the eastern banks of the lake.

Asian Buddhist Conference for Peace

The Indian Vice President recently inaugurated the 12th General Assembly of the Asian Buddhist Conference for Peace in New Delhi. Asian Buddhist Conference for Peace (ABCP) It was founded in 1970 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, as a voluntary movement of followers of Buddhism with both monastic (monks) and lay members.  Its aim is to bring together the efforts of Buddhists in s

Arabian Sea

Context: In a positive end to a hijacking attempt in the North Arabian Sea, marine commandos (MARCOS) of the Indian Navy on Friday evening secured and safely evacuated all 21 crew members, including 15 Indians, from merchant vessel Lila Norfolk. News: The vessel, Lila Norfolk, transmitted a message through the UK Maritime Trade Operations portal while being approximately 460 nautical m

Chandubi Festival

The Chandubi Festival takes place near the Chandubi Lake in Kamrup district, Assam. The festival celebrates Assamese culture and traditions, and aims to promote and preserve the cultural heritage of the area's tribal communities. The Chandubi Festival is organized by the people of Rajapara village in the Kamrup district, under the Rabha Hasong Autonomous Council (RHAC).

Soligas & Yeravas – Indigenous people

A recent book has looked into the diets of Soligas and Yeravas communities, who have been living in the Cauvery Basin and the surrounding hills of peninsular India for thousands of years. The book Forgotten Trails: Foraging Wild Edibles was authored by Malemleima Ningombi and Harisha RP. Soligas – They are an indigenous tribe of Biligiri Rangan Hills (B.R. Hills) in Karnataka

Panama Canal-Facts

Scientists recently stumbled upon a lost forest in the Panama Canal, dating back around 22 million years. Panama Canal It is an artificial waterway that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a conduit for maritime trade.It was cut through one of the narrowest saddles of the isthmus that joins North an

Pakke Paga Hornbill Festival

The 9th edition of the Pakke Paga Hornbill Festival (PPHF), a state festival of Arunachal Pradesh, will take place at Seijosa in the Pakke Kessang district from January 18-20, 2024. Pakke Paga Hornbill Festival The first-ever PPHF was held in 2015. The aim was to recognise the role played by the Nyishi tribal group in conserving hornbills in Pakke Tiger Reserve (PTR). O

16th Century Telugu Inscriptions

2 Telugu inscriptioans of 16th century found in Nallamala forest in Andhra Pradesh recently. One of the inscriptions records the construction of cradle pillars (uyyala-kambalu) to Goddess Poleramma. The other inscription seems to refer to a hero fighting with a tiger.

Adi Shankaracharya & Advaita

All 4 shankaracharyas will not attend Ram temple inauguration in 2024. Birth – Kalady village on the bank of the River Periyar in Kerala. Period – Between 788 and 820 AD. Guru – Govinda Bhagavatpada. Works – Visiting spiritual centres, challenging prevalent philosophical traditions, and establishing mathas, organ

Oil production from deepwater basin

Context: The Prime Minister applauded first oil production commences from the complex and difficult deepwater Krishna Godavari basin situated off the coast of Bay of Bengal. About Krishna-Godavari Basin The Krishna-Godavari Basin, situated in the state of Andhra Pradesh and the adjoining Bay of Bengal region, is an extensive deltaic plain formed by the Krishna and Godavari rivers on the

Rise in child marriages in West Bengal

Context: A recent study on child marriage in India published in the Lancet noted the overall decrease in child marriage across the country but pointed out that four States, mainly Bihar (16.7%), West Bengal (15.2%), Uttar Pradesh (12.5%), and Maharashtra (8.2%) accounted for more than half of the total headcount burden of child marriages in girls. Key findings: The pap

Krizna Jama Cave

Krizna Jama, also known as Cross Cave or Cold Cave under Cross Mountain, is a cave in Slovenia. It's located in the Loz Valley, between the Loz Karst Field, Cerknica Karst Field, and Bloke Plateau. Krizna Jama is the 4th biggest known underground ecosystem in the world in terms of biodiversity.

India’s stubborn income poverty problem

Context: Declining multidimensional poverty is good news but income poverty, which has remained defiantly high for the last five years, must be fixed. Progressing Indian economy: NSO estimates GDP growth at 7.3%, Sensex crosses 72,000, and foreign exchange reserves exceed $620 billion. Inflation contained within RBI's desired band of 4 plus/minus 2 percent. India has achieved a re

Indrayani river

Context: The reappearance of toxic foam in the Indrayani River has revived concerns about pollution in the region. About Indrayani River : Geographical Setting: The Indrayani River serves as a tributary of the Bhima River, a significant contributor to the Krishna River. Originating near Lonavla in Kurvande village amidst the Sahyadri mountains of Maharashtra, the river depends on rainfa

Moradabad brass

Moradabad brass is a small-scale, low-technology industry that has been growing since the early 19th century. Moradabad city is known as the "City of Brass" or Pital Nagri for its large-scale brass works. It was established in 1600 by Murad, the son of the Mughal Emperor Shahjahan, as a result the city came to known as Moradabad. The British took the art t

Kachchhi Kharek (GI TAG)

Kachchhi Kharek, the indigenous variety of dates of Kutch, has become the second fruit of Gujarat to get a geographical indication (GI) tag from the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks (CGPDT) of India. Kachchhi Kharek The presence of dates in Kachchh (Kutch) is believed to be around 400-500 years old.It is believed that date palm groves along the north-weste


Context: Jallikattu, the traditional bull-taming sport, kicked off the year in Tamil Nadu with an event in Thachankurichi village featuring 500 bulls and heavy security. About: Jallikattu is a traditional sport deeply rooted in the culture of Tamil Nadu, India. Celebrated during the Tamil harvest festival, Pongal, in January, the event involves releasing a wild bull into a crowd. Pa

Cabo Verde (also known as Cape Verde)

Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) has certified Cabo Verde (also known as Cape Verde) as a malaria-free country. Why in the news?  Cabo Verde has become the third country to acquire the status in the global health organisation’s African region. The country has now joined Mauritius and Algeria, who were certified in 1973 and 2019, respectively.

ONGC- discovered natural gas reserves- Mahanadi basin

The state-owned Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) (It is an Indian oil and gas explorer and producer.It is under the ownership of Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Government of India. Its headquarters is situated in New Delhi. ONGC was founded on 14 August 1956 by the government of India. It was conferred with 'Maharatna' status by the Government of India in November 2010) recen

Warming up to climate change: How do we know humans are causing global warming?

Background: 2023 could have been the hottest year in the 174-year observational record and probably the hottest in 125,000 years. It was dotted with lethal heat waves, devastating floods, droughts, and record-low ice levels in the Arctic and Antarctic. These are only a handful of the effects of climate change. Evidences of increasing temperature on earth surface: There are several lines of e


It is part of the necropolis (burial place) of the ancient Egyptian city of Memphis. It is located on the western bank of the Nile, 40 kilometers south of Cairo, the capital of Egypt. Saqqara’s name derives from the name of the burial god Sokar. It was an active burial ground for more than 3500 years and is Egypt’s largest archaeological

An ambitious push for values, ethics in higher education

Context: The University Grants Commission (UGC) has been issuing regulations, guidelines and directives at break neck speed that some of the important ones miss drawing the attention of the higher education community. One such guideline is Mulya Pravah 2.0, a modified version of Mulya Pravah, which was notified in 2019.  Issues Associated with Higher Education System: Unethical Conduct:

GI-Tagged Products from Odisha

Context: Seven products from Odisha, including traditional foods and handicrafts, have received the Geographical Indication (GI) tag. About Geographical Indication (GI) Tag: A Geographical Indication (GI) is a label affixed to products originating from a specific geographical location, possessing unique qualities or a reputation attributable to that origin. Nodal Agency and Legal Framewor

Krishnarajasagar (KRS) dam

Context: Karnataka HC bans mining activity near KRS reservoir. High Court says ban will apply even on existing mining licences, adding, it will be in force till the completion of a study by experts and decision taken by the State committee on dam safety. About Krishnaraja Sagar (KRS) Dam: Krishnaraja Sagar (KRS) Dam is a gravity dam. Situated below the confluence of the Kaveri River wit

Janaushadhi Kendras

Context: With the expansion of Janaushadhi Kendra to more than 10,000 centers the pharma companies are facing losses.  Generic Medicines and Their Impact on the Pharmaceutical Industry: The increasing prevalence of generic medicines is negatively affecting the growth of the domestic pharmaceutical market valued at Rs 1.9 lakh crore. Janaushadhi Kendra: Janaushadhi Kendras a

Bobbili Veena

The Bobbili veena is a large plucked string instrument used in Carnatic classical music, also known as the Saraswati veena and is named after the town of Bobbili, where it was invented. In 2011, the Government of India gave the instrument a Geographical Indication tag. The Bobbili veena is known for its distinctive notes and fine tune which is made from a single pie

Kalaram Temple

Recently, Prime Minister of India took part in cleaning the Kalaram temple premises under the ‘Swachh Bharat Abhiyan’ campaign. Built in – 1792, with the efforts of one Sardar Rangarao Odhekar. Name – It derives its name from a black statue of the Lord Kala Ram translates literally to “Black Ram.” Location – On

Pulses in India – FACTS for UPSC

India is poised to become the world’s largest producer of lentils (masoor) in the 2023-24 crop year due to increased acreage. Lentils Scientific name – Lens culinaris It is a small annual legume of the pea family (Fabaceae) and its edible seed. Types – Green lentils, Red &a

Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti

PM presents sacred Chadar to be placed during the Urs of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti at Ajmer Sharif Dargah Khwaja Chishti is also known by different names as, Khawaja Gharib Nawaz, ‘Sultan-Ul-Hind’ (Benefactor of the Poor). Birth – Sijistan (modern-day Sistan) in Iran in 1141-42 CE. Visit to India – He started living and preaching in Ajm

Classical Languages in INDIA

Classical Language Criteria evolved by Government of India to determine declaration of a language as a Classical language is as under:- High antiquity of its early texts/recorded history over a period of 1500-2000 years; A body of ancient literature/texts, which is considered a valuable heritage by generations of speakers; The literary tradition be original and not

Warli painting

Context: Warli Whisperers, an exhibition by the Inherited Arts Forum, traces the artistic journey of the celebrated Mashe family from Maharashtra About: Origin: Warli art, until the 1970s, focused on representing the joy and happiness of the Warli Tribes' lives. Traditionally, women practiced this art form. Method: Cow dung layers serve as the canvas, painted in mud brown for the ba

International Braille Day

World Braille Day is celebrated on January 4th to commemorate the birthday of Louis Braille, the inventor of braille. The day recognizes the importance of braille as a means of communication and the roale it plays in the lives of blind and visually impaired people. Braille is a tactile representation of alphabetic and numerical symbols using 6 dots to represent each letter

Coal production in country

Context: The coal production in the country has shot up to over 664 million tonnes during the current financial year which is a robust 12.29 percent increase over the corresponding figure of over 591 million tonnes for the same period of the previous year. Significance: This increase ensures a consistent and robust coal supply to meet the energy needs of the power sector. Efficient coal

Donkey routes: En route Europe, how Indians visit several countries to create ‘travel history’

Context: Last year, Serbia had to change its visa rules because of the illegal migrants, including Indians, flooding it as an entry point to Europe. Background: Serbia modified its visa rules last year due to pressure from the European Union, prompted by the misuse of its visa-free regime. Indians, among others, were exploiting this route as an illegal transit to enter European countries li

The hottest year

Context: With temperatures at all-time high in 2023, 2024 will be pivotal in reducing emissions, without compromising developmental needs News: COP 21 Agreement: Eight years ago in Paris, countries agreed to limit global temperature increases to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and strive for a 1.5-degree Celsius limit as a defense against climate change. Unwritt

Pong dam

Recently the draft policy was prepared to declare Pong Dam Wildlife Sanctuary and the surrounding area an eco-sensitive zone. It is the highest earth-fill dam in India and is one of India’s largest man-made reservoir. Built in – 1975, named after Maharana Pratap and so called as Maharana Pratap Sagar. Location – Over Beas River in Himachal


Alvaro, the 1st cyclone of 2024, made landfall near Morombe in Madagascar recently. Mozambique named the cyclone Alvaro. Resilience and Preparedness to tropical cyclones across Southern Africa (REPRESA) is an international initiative that aims to improve community preparedness for tropical cyclones in Southern Africa.

Hattis get ST tag

Context: The state government of Himachal Pradesh has finally issued notification to give Scheduled Tribe (ST) status to the Hatti community of Trans-Giri area of Sirmaur district. Background: The residents of the Trans-Giri area were demanding ST status on the lines of the Jaunsar-Bawar area of  . Uttarakhand granted in 1967 itself. Both Trans-Giri and J

Nine-degree Channel

The Indian Air Force (IAF) has proposed to set up a forward fighter airbase in Minicoy Islands, to safeguard the sea lanes of communications and to keep the Arabian Sea free from non-state actors in the region. Location - In the Indian Ocean between the Laccadive Islands of Kalpeni and Suheli Par, and Maliku Atoll of Minicoy. Features - Approximately 200 km wide with a depth of 2

Rock Glaciers

A study has pointed out that the 100 active permafrost structures identified in Jhelum basin, can cause catastrophic disasters in future. A rock glacier is a mass of rock, ice, snow, mud, and water that moves slowly down a mountain under the influence of gravity. Formation - They typically form in mountainous regions where there is a combination of

Savitribai Phule and Rani Velu Nachiyar

Context: The Prime Minister paid tributes to Savitribai Phule and Rani Velu Nachiyar on their Jayanti. Savitribai Phule Savitribai Phule was a Maharashtra-based social reformer and educator who, along with her husband Jyotirao Phule, played a significant role in promoting women's rights in India. Here are some key points about her life and work: - Born on January 3, 1831, in Naigaon,

Czech Republic

The Czech Republic, also known as Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe with its capital Prague. It borders Poland, Germany, Austria, and Slovakia. With a lack of natural lakes, reservoirs are important in the Czech Republic.

Gol Gumbaz

Bomb threat e-mail to Gol Gumbaz museum turns out to be hoax. It is the located in the state of Karnataka, built in Indo-Islamic style of architecture.It is the tomb of Mohammed Adil Shah (ruled 1627–1657). It is the second largest dome ever built, next in size only to St Peter’s Basilica in Rome.A particular attraction in this monument is the central chamber, where every sound i


The Earth reached its perihelion, or the closest point in its orbit around the Sun recently. Perihelion occurs in early January, about 2 weeks after the Winter Solstice.

Child Marriages in INDIA

A recent study published in the Lancet noted overall decrease in child marriage in India except 4 States. What are the key findings of the Lancet report? India – 1 in 5 girls are still married below legal marriage age Skewed achievements – Some States have achieved dramatic decreases while other states like West Bengal have struggled. Bihar (16.7%)

Kakad Bhairav or Bhilat Baba

Context: A stone deity worshipped by the Bhils in Madhya Pradesh’s Bagh was recently proved to be a fossilized dinosaur egg. News: Tradition Continuation: Similar to their forebears, the Bhil community has a tradition of venerating ancient stones, with generations worshipping the sunbaked, reddish-brown Kakad Bhairav or Bhilat Baba. Rituals: Ceremonies involve offerings, including

Fog in North India

Dense fog covered the better part of north India during the last days of December and the 1st couple of days of 2024. What is fog? A fog – It is a collection of small droplets of water produced when evaporated water has cooled down and condensed.It is nothing but a thick cloud, but very close to the earth’s surface. Conditions for a thick fog

Savitribai Phule & Rani Velu Nachiyar

Savitribai Phule Savitribai Phule (1831 - 1897) was a social reformer, poet in Maharastra. She is considered the 1st female teacher in India and is known as the mother of Indian feminism. Rani Velu Nachiyar Rani Velu Nachiyar was the 1st queen to fight against the British colonial power in India. She is known by Tamils as Veeramangai, who was the pr

Yeonpyeong Island, North Korea Island

North Korea has fired more than 200 rounds of artillery shells off its west coast, towards the South's Yeonpyeong Island. Yeonpyeong Island – It is home to a military base and a small civilian population of about 2,000 people in South Korea. Geography – It lies 3km (2 miles) from the disputed maritime border in the Yellow Sea and 12km from the Nor


Context: Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities through National Divyangjan Finance and Development Corporation (NDFDC, an apex corporation under (DEPwD) is organizing a unique event showcasing the products and craftsmanship of Divyang entrepreneurs/artisans from across the country, ‘Divya Kala Mela’ from 29th December 2023 – 7th January 2024 in Sur

Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956

Context: The Kerala High Court has expanded the definition of 'procure' in Section 5 of the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956, to encompass individuals seeking the services of prostitutes. Understanding the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956: The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act (ITP), 1956, is aimed at curbing the commercialization of vices and the trafficking of females. W

National Youth Award 2024

Union Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports has selected Bisathi Bharat of Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh for the National Youth Award (NYA) recently. It is an award conferred annually to individuals and voluntary organisations serving in the arena of youth development.

Tsunami in JAPAN

Tsunami waves hit several parts of Japan’s coastal areas and urgent evacuation warnings were issued after a 7.6-magnitude earthquake shook the country’s north-central region. What is Tsunami? Tsunami– A Japanese word meaning harbour wave. Tsu – harbour; nami - wave. It is a series of giant ocean waves caused by earthquakes or vol

Ministry of Minority Affairs-Year review

The Ministry was carved out of Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment in 2006. Objective- To ensure a more focused approach towards issues relating to the notified minority communities - Muslim, Christian, Buddhist, Sikhs, Parsis and Jain. As per Census 2011, around 19.3% of the population belongs to minorities. Mandate- To formulate, coordinate, evaluate and review the over

The Kharsawan massacre of 1948

The Kharsawan massacre occurred on January 1, 1948 in the town of Kharsawan, which is now part of Jharkhand. The massacre was similar to the Jallianwala Bagh incident in 1919. The massacre occurred during a protest against the merger of Kharsawan with Odisha. Police opened fire on a crowd of Adivasis, killing hundreds or possibly thousands.

Mount Lewotobi Laki-Laki

Mount Lewotobi Laki-Laki is a mountain in Indonesia. It is part of the Lewotobi twin volcano, which is located in the southeastern part of Flores Island. The Lewotobi twin volcano is made up of the Lewotobi Laki-Laki (male) and Lewotobi Perempuan (female) stratovolcanoes, with summit craters less than 2 km apart. Mount Lewotobi Laki-Laki in Indonesia has erupted several times

PM interacts with beneficiaries of Viksit Bharat Sankalp Yatra

Context: Since its launch on 15th November, 2023, Prime Minister has regularly interacted with the beneficiaries of the Viksit Bharat Sankalp Yatra all across the country.  The interaction has happened thrice through video conferencing (30th November, 9th December and 16th December). Also, Prime Minister has interacted with Viksit Bharat Sankalp Yatra beneficiaries physically on two consecuti

Mera Yuva Bharat (MY Bharat) portal

Context: Registration of youth on the Mera Yuva Bharat portal has crossed 35 Lakhs About the portal: The Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports has launched a tech-driven platform Mera Yuva Bharat (MY Bharat) portal, aimed at fostering youth development and empowering young people to lead positive change. Key Goals: Developing Youth Leaders: To nurture leadership skills and equip

Wine tourism

Over 5,000 tourists visited Sula Vineyard facilities in Bengaluru and Nashik on December 24th 2023, the most on a single day sale of ?85 lakh. Wine – An alcoholic beverage with alcohol content from 12% or more so of distilled spirits (all by volume). Production - India’s shares less than 1% in global production, while France, Italy, Spain and

Geographical Indication (GI)

A geographical indication (GI) is a designation applied to products originating from a specific geographical area, indicating that the qualities or reputation of the products are inherently linked to that particular origin. In India, the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, of 1999 governs the registration and protection of GIs. These tags play a crucia

Indian Landslide Susceptibility Map

IIT Delhi team makes first hi-res landslide risk map for India. Landslide Susceptibility Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurrence in an area depend on the terrain condition. It is an estimate of where landslides will have occurred. Relative susceptibility to land sliding is used as a measure of the potential hazard within an area. It is applicable to regi

Kadamba Inscription

10th century Kadamba inscription written in Kannada, Sanskrit found in Goa. Kadamba Dynasty (345-535 C.E.) Extent - The Kadamba dynasty was an ancient Indian dynasty that ruled over parts of South India, particularly the present-day Karnataka region, from the 4th to the 6th centuries CE. Founder - The Kadamba dynasty is believed to have been founded by Mayurasharma, who was or

Is the climate fight lost? 5 reasons to be hopeful it is not.

CONTEXT: Fight against climate change: From cheap renewables to lucrative green investments, there is lots of progress and innovation, according to experts. Key highlights: Carbon emissions are expected to reach record highs, but a study by the New Climate Institute provides reasons for hope. Climate awareness has become mainstream, with increased media coverage and global climate prote

Veer Bal Diwas

Veer Bal Diwas CONTEXT: Union Minister of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare and Tribal Affairs Shri Arjun Munda participated in the historic programme marking Veer Bal Diwas at Gurudwara Saheeb Baba Deep Singh Ji at Jamshedpur, Jharkhand today. Veer Bal Diwas is commemorated annually on December 26th to honor the sacrifice of Guru Gobind Singh's four sons, who bravely fought ag

Thanjavur Doll

Makers of the famed bobble-head and roly-poly dolls are facing stiff competition from electronic toys and e-commerce platforms, besides a severe labour crunch and shortage of clay. Introduced by - The craft was brought to Thanjavur by Maratha ruler Raja Serfoji in the early 19th Century. Types - Thanjavur dolls are primarily of two kinds, one is the bobble-head version, and the


Valmiki, also known as Maharishi Valmiki, is a legendary poet and revered sage in Hindu mythology. He is known as the author of the epic poem Ramayana, and is revered as the 1st poet in Sanskrit literature. He is called as the Adikavi or First Poet - the Poet of Poets of India. Valmiki's birth anniversary is celebrated every year on Ashwin Purnima.

Warli tribe

The Warli are an indigenous of Maharashtra and Gujarat. The name "Warli" comes from the word "Warla", which means "piece of land" or "field". The Warli are considered by some to be a sub-caste of the Bhil tribe, and their history dates back to the 10th century AD. The Warli people speak Varli or Warli, an Indo-Aryan language.

IEC Campaign on Pradhan Mantri Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan (PM-JANMAN)

Context: The Union Ministry of Tribal Affairs has launched an Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) campaign for the Pradhan Mantri Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan (PM-JANMAN). News: The campaign aims to reach 22,000 Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG) majority tribal habitations and families in 200 districts nationwide. PM-JANMAN was inaugurated on November 15,

PM releases ‘Collected Works of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya’ on occasion of his 162nd birth anniversary

Context: The bilingual work in 11 volumes, spread across about 4,000 pages, is a collection of the writings and speeches of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, collected from every nook and corner of the country. These volumes comprise his unpublished letters, articles and speeches, including memorandums; the editorial content of Hindi weekly ‘Abhyudaya’ started by him in 1907; articles, pamp

Guinness World Record in Gujarat

Gujarat set a Guinness World Record recently after more than 50,000 people performed 'Surya Namaskar' simultaneously at 108 venues. Surya Namaskar or sun salutation is an ancient Yogic practice of paying respect to the rising sun and comprises different postures or Asanas.

A tale of two villages, one in UP, one in Tamil Nadu: Tracking change, over decades

Use from exam point of view: description of each village can be used as a separate case study or example patterns of change taking place in rural India Case studies: Palakurichi Trends in agriculture located in the lower Cauvery delta of the old Thanjavur region. historically known as the “rice bowl of South India” Mettur dam’s construction in 1934 a


It is a Hindu ritual practiced in northern Kerala and some parts of Karnataka.  A Theyyam, also known as Kaliyattam or Tira is a ritualistic performance where pantheistic deities — goddesses in most part — are summoned to the body of the performing man. The form as well as the performance are known as Theyyam. The Chamundi Theyyam is performed by the Pulaya


RRTS is India’s first mass rapid system dedicated to regional connectivity. It is capable of running at speeds up to 180 km/hour with semi high-speed rail connectivity at its core. The integrated, mass transit network aims to ensure “balanced and sustainable urban development” through better connectivity and access across the NCR. The RRTS also known as Namo Bharat has b


Why in the News?  The state of Andhra Pradesh has said that it would begin a backward classes census to gather data to better know the numerical strength of 139 backward-class communities in the state. This comes after the publication of the results of the caste survey in Bihar earlier this month. It has also raised the possibility that other states too wou


Coal production in India is a significant part of the country's energy and industrial sectors. India has one of the world's largest coal reserves, and coal remains a crucial source of energy for power generation, as well as a key raw material for various industries, including steel and cement production. Coal production in India is mainly overseen by Coal India Limited (CIL), a state-ow


Why in the News? The five-judge Constitution Bench of the Supreme court, which decided on the same-sex marriage case, in a 3:2 majority, held that non-heterosexual couples cannot claim an unqualified right to marry. Why is there a demand for legalising same-sex marriages? Navtej Singh Johar vs. Union of India, 2018- decriminalised homosexuality by striking off Section 377 IPC Put


The Rafah crossing is the only passage in and out of the Gaza Strip to Eygpt, that is not controlled by Israel. It has been recognized by the 1979 Egypt–Israel peace treaty. As part of that treaty, a 100-meter-wide strip of land known as the Philadelphi Route was established as a buffer zone between Gaza and Egyp Gaza has been under a joint Israeli-Egyp


Why in the News? A shallow focus earthquake of 14 km depth with 6.3 magnitude struck about 40 kms northwest of Herat in Afghanistan that caused devastating impacts on life and property. The earthquake was a result of thrust faulting near the far western terminus of the Hindu Kush Mountain range. It was followed by another earthquake with 6.3 magnitude which occurred within the


SOLAR ECLIPSE   A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun. An annular solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is smaller than the Sun's, blocking most of the Sun's light and causing the Sun to look like an annulus (ring). An annular solar eclipse occurred on October 14, 2023. Solar


ABORTION LAWS IN INDIA     Why in the News? The Supreme Court has referred a case to a larger Bench involving a 26 weeks pregnant married woman seeking abortion citing her inability to take care of the child due to post-partum depression and other health issues. She has two other children. The SC initially agreed to her plea but 2 days later, a two-jud


CHERIYAPANI     Cheriyapani is a high-speed craft will ply from Nagapattinam in T.N. to Kankesanthurai in the northern province of Sri Lanka. It shall involve a 4-hour journey between India and Sri Lanka. The vessel can accommodate 150 passengers on board and the one-way ticket for travel will cost around ₹7,670. The Nagapattinam port It

Sikkim flash floods - Chungthang dam

Why in News There is a popular folk tale in Sikkim about two rivers, the male Rangeet and female Rungnyu (Teesta), and how the Rangeet turned back angrily after losing a race. In 2021, a protest song gave a modern twist to this tale, referring to the Teesta's rage at hydropower projects. On October 4, 2022, the South Lhonak glacial lake in northwest Sikkim breached its embankment

Gaza Strip

  Gaza strip is a narrow piece of land located on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea It is bordered by Israel to the east and north, and Egypt to the southwest.  It is ranked as the third most densely populated in the world with a population of 2 million in just 365 square kilometers of land area. It is one of the two Palesti

Adi Kailash

Adi Kailash     Adi Kailash, also known as Shiva Kailash, Chota Kailash, Baba Kailash or Jonglingkong Peak, is a mountain located in the Himalayan Mountain range in the Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand, India. It is the second most important peak among the group of five separate peaks in Himalayas, others include

Mundra Port

Mundra Port     It is India's first private port and largest container port in India. It is located on the northern shores of the Gulf of Kutch near Mundra, Kutch district of Gujarat. Incorporated in 2003, it became India's first multi-product port-based special economic zone.  Formerly operated by Mundra Port and Speci

Operation Polo

Operation Polo     When India became free on August 15, 1947, Hyderabad remained independent citing the communal bonhomie, size of the kingdom and its infrastructure. But on September 13, 1948, Indian Army attacked from four frontiers and annexed the princely state. Hyderabad was one of wealthiest and most powerful principality which was ruled by Nizam,&

Vizhinjam port

Vizhinjam port     It is located in Vizhinjam, Kerala and has a natural depth of 18 metres. It is a deep-sea water port developed as India’s first Mega deepwater Transshipment Container Terminal. It is the only container transshipment hub in the Indian subcontinent closest to the international shipping routes, and is centrally located on the Indian coastline

Women want change, society needs change

    Why in the News? The 17th edition of the Global Gender Gap Report 2023 of the World Economic Forum (WEF) has reflected that at the current rate of progress, it will take 131 years to close the global gender gap and it is 149 years in populous South Asian countries including India.   Women in Leadership roles: As proxy leaders H

WACE pattern-Cyclones

WACE pattern-Cyclones     Cyclogenesis is an indicator that denotes the chance of a cyclone forming. It depends on parameters such as   Sea surface temperature The ocean heat content Change in winds from the surface into the upper atmosphere (or the vertical shear) Rotation of winds near the surface. A rapid increase in the cyclogenesis p


KEN- BETWA RIVER LINKAGE Why in the News? The Ken-Betwa Link Project (KBLP) involving cost of Rs 44,605-crore has finally secured the final forest clearance after 6 years of getting the provisional nod. Ken-Betwa Link Project (KBLP):     It is the first project under the National Perspective Plan for interlinking of rivers.  The project intends to


JIVITPUTRIKA FESTIVAL   Jitiya (also called Jivitputrika) is a 3 day long Hindu festival celebrated from the 7th to 9th lunar day of Krishna-Paksha in Ashvin month.  The festival is celebrated in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Jharkhand as well as Nepali people of West Bengal. The three-day long fes

Sammakka Saralamma Jatara

Sammakka Saralamma Jatara     The Union cabinet approved the Sarakka Central Tribal University in Telangana to be set up at a cost of Rs 889 crore. The Mulugu district of Telangana holds the Sammakka Saralamma Jatara, a biennial festival. The jatara is considered among the largest gatherings of tribal people in the world and also attracts the largest number o

Bekal Fort

Bekal Fort     Bekal Fort is a medieval fort built by Shivappa Nayaka of Keladi in 1650 AD, at Bekal.  It is the largest fort in Kerala. The fort appears to emerge from the sea and about three-quarters of its exterior lies in contact with water. The fort does not include any palaces or mansions as it was not an administrative centre. The

Green Drought

Green Drought     Green drought is when the vegetation may appear green on the top, but there is stunted growth and soil moisture stress for more than a month impacting yield drastically. This phenomenon is particularly problematic because it can be challenging to detect and monitor. Karnataka has urged to conduct an assessment on the ‘green drought’ p

Retribution for the south, accolade for the north

Retribution for the south, accolade for the north     Why in the News? The South Indian states face the risk of reduced political representation due to its lower population size compared to the northern states, amid the recent passing of Women Reservation bill, 2023 in the Parliament. Delimitation and political representation: Article 81 of the Constitution:

Circular Migration

Circular Migration Circular migration: It is a repetitive form of migration wherein, according to the availability of employment, people move to another place (the destination country) and back (country of origin). Instead of migrating permanently or temporarily (say, contract-based labour) to another location, people move to different locations for a brief period of time when work is a

Counting Caste

Counting Caste   Why in the News? The Bihar govt. has released the results of its survey of castes in the state, which was a result of unanimous decision of an all-party meeting in the state. It is the first such large-scale exercise where results have been made public (comprehensive caste data collected by Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, as well as the Union government

Bihar Survey

Bihar Survey Why in the News? The Bihar govt. has released the results of its survey of castes in the state, which was a result of unanimous decision of an all-party meeting in the state. The survey involved a 17-question form on caste, religion, and economic status. An app was used to collect the data for tabulation and processing. Key findings of the Caste survey: T

Protecting protected monuments

Protecting protected monuments   Why in the News? A parliamentary committee headed by Rajya Sabha MP V Vijaisai Reddy has recommended that the list of centrally protected monuments (CPM) should be “rationalised” as 3,691 of CPM in India are “minor” monuments. The CPMs have to be categorised on the basis of their national significance, unique

Karman Line

Karman Line Kármán Line is a boundary located at 100 km above sea level. It is an imaginary line that demarcates the earth’s atmosphere from space. A record-keeping body called Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) established this boundary in the 1960s. Any individual who crosses this line qualifies to be an astronaut. The

Kosi River

Kosi River   It is a transboundary river which flows through China, Nepal and India.  It drains the northern slopes of the Himalayas in Tibet and the southern slopes in Nepal. The Kosi River is also known as Saptakoshi for its seven upper tributaries which includes: Tamur river Arun river Sun Kosi The trib

Need for a timely census

Need for a timely census     Why in the News? The conduction of 2021 Census got delayed due to the pandemic, while the implementation of the women's quota has been tied to the delimitation exercise, which in turn will be based on the first census after 2026. What is the need for Census? Data availability has increased in the present times which raises que

Poona pact

Poona pact     The pact was a historic compromise between Gandhi and Ambedkar over the rights of Dalits, or "untouchables", in 1932. It was an agreement on political representation of the Depressed Classes. A communal award giving separate electorates for the scheduled castes in central and provincial legislatures was given by Ramsay Macdo

Manaskhand Temple Circuit

Manaskhand Temple Circuit     It connects Uttarakhand to tourist destinations the Kumaon region. It shall connect ancient and revered temples across various districts to provide a rich spiritual heritage of the region. The project will connect Jageshwar temple, Kainchi Dham, Mukteshwar, Purnagiri temple, and Golu Devta temple. The temple circuit c

El Niño comes with economic risks

Why in the News? The month of August has been registered as the driest ever month which shall be aggravated by strengthening of El Niño which shall pose a serious food inflation challenge. El Niño effect: The phenomenon is marked by abnormal warming of the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean waters towards Ecuador and Peru.   This s

Himalayan blunders that are ravaging the Himalayas

Himalayan blunders that are ravaging the Himalayas     Why in the News? The States in the Himalayan region have been experiencing extreme climate events in recent times leading to large scale damage to lives and property led by steady environmental depredation. Blocked roads after a landslide at Chamoli Sinking in Joshimath in Uttarakhand Road caving in

Fort Kochi-Vypeen undersea tunnel is a National asset

Fort Kochi-Vypeen undersea tunnel is a National asset   Why in the News? The Kerala government’s ambitious project of constructing a coastal highway from Thiruvananthapuram to Kasargode is underway. The proposed Highway: It is a coastal highway running over a distance of about 623 km at a cost of ₹6,500 crore from Thiruvananthapuram to Kasargode&n

Alai Darwaza

Alai Darwaza     Alai Darwaza, one of the four gates to the Qutub complex housing Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque was built by Alauddin Khilji in 1311 AD. The other three gates were not completed because of Alauddin’s death. The mosque was commissioned by Qutb-ud-din Aibak and partly expanded by Shamsuddin Altamash later. They were expanded further under the

Seethakali Folk art

Seethakali Folk art     A Dravidian dance drama primarily performed by Dalit artists belonging to the Veda and Pulaya communities of Kerala, first performed some 150 years back. It presents minuscule episodes of the Ramayana at every homestead, portions from vanayatra (exile to the forest) to Sita’s andardhanam (descend into the earth).&nbs

India Smart Cities Award Contest (ISAC), 2022:

India Smart Cities Award Contest (ISAC), 2022:     It was launched to reward the cities, projects and innovative ideas promoting smart development in cities as an outcome of Smart Cities Mission, which was launched in 2015 to transform 100 cities into sustainable and livable urban centres. The awards are announced by The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.

Chabahar port

Chabahar port     India and Iran have agreed that disputes at Chabahar will not go for commercial arbitration in foreign courts but take investment arbitration or any other mode of dispute settlement. The arbitration will be pursued under rules framed by the UN Commission on International Trade Law This shall enable long-term agreement and boost investor confidenc

India and the Northern Sea Route

India and the Northern Sea Route   Why in the News? India has been witnessing the rising trend of involvement in cargo traffic in Murmansk port with a lion’s share of 35% of eight million tonnes of cargo handled by the port in the last 7 months in 2023.     Significance of Arctic region to India: The Arctic region encompassing Arctic Ocean with

Droughts in India

Why in the News? The state of Kerala is likely to face drought due to widening monsoon deficit and threat of drought looming in other states of South India as well.   News in Detail: Kerala registered a shortfall of 90% rain in the month of August, receiving only 25mm against the usual pattern of 240.2mm of rainfall. The water availability in the key reservoirs stands at a me

Smartphones in Schools

Why in the News? The UNESCO recently recommended a Universal ban on smartphones in the schools citing its potential of its negative impacts on Students’ learning outcomes. Over 1.2 billion people in India use mobile phones, with nearly 600 million smartphone users, which is expected to cross a billion by 2026.   Need for Smartphones in the digital era for school students:

Kerala to Keralam

Kerala to Keralam The Kerala’s Legislative Assembly has unanimously passed a resolution to rename the state as Keralam by adding a suffix ‘m’ to its existing name in the Constitution and official records. The rationale behind the move is that it seeks convergence with its Malayalam name ‘Keralam’, as states were formed on the basis of the language in the S

Quit India Movement

Quit India Movement Also known as August movement or Bharat chodo Andolan. It was an important Civil Disobedience Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Congress on August 8, 1942. It was launched during the Second World war when the Participation of British in the war has strained the resources of India and the threat of Japanese invasion was becoming real.

Ancient Civilisation unearthed at Keeladi

Ancient Civilisation unearthed at Keeladi Why in the News? A weighing unit made of quartz crystal has been unearthed for the first time in Keeladi excavation site in Tamil Nadu. Keeladi excavation Site: Keezhadi/ Keeladi is a village in Sivagangai district, 12 km southeast of Madurai in Tamil Nadu. The region is being unearthed by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) and

Preserving Tribal Culture

Why in the News? The Odisha government’s Special Development Councils Model has achieved significant progress towards achieving Preservation of Tribal Culture. The Special Development Councils (SDCs) of Odisha: It was introduced in 2017 to preserve the culture and heritage along with economic development of 62 tribal groups in the state including 13 Particularly Vulnerable Tribal

Crawford Lake

Crawford Lake Location- Ontario in Canada The lake's bottom sediments has provided evidence for beginning of Anthropocene epoch ( present geological time scale during which earth's ecosystem has degraded due to human activities especially after Industrial revolution) The lake bottom sediments contained burned fossil fuels, exploded nuclear weapons, plastic and fertilizers dumped

Chapter 6: Non-Possession – The Gandhian Thought

Gandhiji wrote a few pieces titled "Guide to Health." He stated that all human acts are carried out by the mind with the assistance of the ten senses. These are separated into five action senses and five perception senses. It is suggested that the body be considered as God's temple. Gandhi's self-discipline was the foundation of his sustainable and modest existence. G

CHAPTER 5: Direct Benefit Transfer in INDIA

The Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) paradigm represents a quantum leap forward in terms of realising the stated vision of Fundamental Rights and State Policy Directive Principles. DBT strengthens Article 21 by efficiently and effectively implementing schemes to address issues such as income, opportunity, and resource inequalities, health, and securing the right to work and public assistance to

Chapter 3: Role of Meditational Approaches in Mental Well-Being

Introduction The absence of disease or infirmity is not sufficient to be considered healthy, according to the World Health Organisation. Hippocrates’ Science of Medicine establishes the objective of medicine as the complete eradication of the distress of the sick. Holistic health and healing Only treatments or procedures that promote the wellbeing of the entire person, inc

Chapter 2: Yoga for Global Well-being

Introduction Yoga is not just a physical exercise but a lifestyle that incorporates physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. It helps to reduce stress and anxiety that is a cause of blood pressure, depression, and heart disease.   Concepts and Principles of Yoga Yoga's Yama and Niyama teachings encourage practitioners to create an inner sense of serenity and s

Chapter 1: AYUSH - Gifting Holistic Well-being to the World

Introduction The Ayurvedic discipline, in instance, is commonly referred to as the "Science of Life." It has its origins in the old Indian knowledge system.  The Ministry of Ayush (MoA) is actively promoting Ayush healthcare systems. This has resulted in increased study funding and collaborations between Ayush experts and modern scientific academics. The Ministry of Ayu

Chapter 8: Digital Publishing- Expanding the horizon

Introduction: The Indian publishing sector is a pillar of Indian culture, values, and transcendence. The publishing sector in India helps to India's economic prosperity by supporting learning and education and employing millions of people. In 2022, it was worth $33.2 billion USD. According to a research, the market will reach $41.6 billion by 2028 and will increase at a compound annu

Chapter 7: 5G Cyber Security Challenges

Introduction: 5G refers to the fifth generation of mobile networks. After 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G networks, it is a new global wireless standard. It provides a new type of network capable of connecting nearly everyone and everything, including machines, objects, and gadgets. Internet speeds in the 5G high-band spectrum have been tested to reach as high as 20 Gbps (gigabits per second), while


A bot is a software, piece of code, or application that can do pre-defined tasks using a database of pre-existing responses or a restricted knowledge base. They are unable to provide acceptable responses to difficult issues that the creators were unaware would be raised. Chatbots of the future use artificial intelligence (AI) and natural language processing (NLP) to imitate human-like inter

Chapter 5: Quantum Computing-Transforming Technology

Introduction: Quantum computing differs from regular computing in that it represents information with 'bits'—binary digits of Os and 1 s. However, quantum computing employs quantum bits, or 'qubits,' which can exist in several states at the same time, rather than just two (i.e., 0 and 1). This'superposition' feature of qubits enables quantum computers to do

Chapter 4: Leveraging technology for transforming healthcare

Digital health is a broad multidisciplinary framework that includes software, hardware, and services on a single platform. The use of technology interventions for providing healthcare solutions and empowering healthcare seekers and providers (including individuals, community or professional carers, doctors, the paramedical workforce, and the pharmaceutical and medical device industries) with

Chapter 2: Startups-Revolutionising India’s growth story

Introduction: Startups have emerged as a crucial driver of economic growth in India in recent years. With the government's emphasis on encouraging entrepreneurship and innovation, India's startup ecosystem has been rapidly expanding. According to NASSCOM, India has the world's third-largest startup ecosystem, with over 50,000 startups. Over the last few years, the country'

Chapter 3: Potential of India’s Edtech sector

EdTech is the use of technology - either software or hardware - to improve teaching and learning. Smartphones with EdTech apps are now synonymous with education. The Indian ICT Revolution Over the previous quarter-century, the Indian ICT industry has expanded quickly. In fiscal year 2022, the industry's total sales will exceed $200 billion, with a workforce of 5 million people. It i


Introduction Since its founding, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has been at the forefront of space technology and exploration. Over the years, the organisation has achieved several breakthroughs in space technologies by harnessing its critical resources, establishing India as a major player in the global space arena. ISRO has seen the progress of space technology and innov

India's National Older Persons Policy

A Central Sector Scheme of the Integrated Program for Senior Citizens is operate by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (IPSrC). Data About Old Person The percentage of seniors in the population is expected to increase from 7.5% in 2001 to roughly 12.5% by 2026 and surpass 19.5% by 2050, according to the Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister's (EAC-PM) Quality of Liv

Chapter 1: Initiatives for New India

Introduction The world is a massive gym where we go to build ourselves up. Swami Vivekananda India has one of the youngest populations in the world with 27.2 per cent of the nation's population belonging to 15-29 years age- group. Such a demographic dividend has the power to improve the country and boost living standards for all. The nation's youth will be a crucial resource for

Chapter 2: Nurturing Excellence of Our Yuva Shakti

Introduction Rig Veda: The youth are the ones who pave the way for a better world. India now has a youth bulge, with the median age being 29. Under PM Modi's vision for India @2047, young empowerment is viewed as a crucial first step towards building an empowered future. The working-age population in India, or those aged 15 to 64, makes up 67% (or 80 crores) of

Chapter 3 : FIT India: Towards a Healthy Future Introduction

With the enhancement of physical and psychological wellbeing, sports promote holistic development. Moreover, it enhances cognitive capacity. Students gain a solid understanding of core values through athletics, including cooperation, discipline, teamwork, fair play, and tolerance. Physical education and sports are incorporated into the curriculum as part of a comprehensive ed

Chapter 4: Youth and Health

Introduction Although there are different definitions of youth, those between the ages of 15 and 44 are generally regarded as youth. Thus, this age range encompasses early adulthood(15 to 19 years)  and late youth (20 to 44 years). One of the healthiest subgroups of the population is young people. The mortality and disease load is lowest for this age group. Nonetheless, there

Chapter 5: Enablers for Employment

Introduction With a 10-year vision for youth development, the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports (MoYAS) released a draft National Youth Policy in April 2022. In line with the Sustainable Development Goals, the policy (SDGs). The policy's five key areas of focus are: Education Employment and business ventures leadership and development of youth Fitness, health, and spo

Chapter 8: Youth Icons of India

Introduction The youth are an essential demographic and an essential force for development and change. They have the power to alter social institutions, affect markets, and create policy. These are essential to achieving the goals of AatmaNirbhar Bharat. Indian youth icons include people like: SUNDAR PICHAI He runs Google as its CEO and in the year 2022, he received the Padm

Chapter 1: Restructuring urban galaxies

In Indian cities and towns nowadays, there is a lot of discussion regarding sustainable development. Sustainability guarantees sustainable growth without becoming overly centralised. India is unique in that it features a hierarchical network of urban settlements of different sizes, including metropolises, cities, and towns. They resemble "urban galaxies" because of

Chapter 2 : Central Vista Redevelopment Project

Introduction •    As part of the Central Vista Renovation Project, the three-kilometer Rajpath from Rashtrapati Bhavan to India Gate will be renovated, a triangular-shaped Parliament building will be built adjacent to the current one, and the Common Central Secretariat will be built. •    It also covers the creation of Central Vista Avenue and the transf

Chapter 3: Development of Historic City Centres

Introduction India is proud to have a long history of architecture and a vibrant culture that is reflected in its ancient architectural crafts. It may be time to consider a truly Indian strategy to conservation in the twenty-first century, one that enables using our historical riches to better the socioeconomic circumstances of people of our historic cities. The monuments of India are pric

Chapter 4 : Brihadeeshwara Temple-A Stand Alone Marvel

Introduction •    The Brihadeeshwara Temple (The Great Temple) in Thanjavur is a magnificent structure that speaks volumes about the Chola era's architectural ability. •    One of the country's biggest Shiva Lingas is located in this Shiva Temple. Above the shrine is a magnificent Nandi (bull). It is made of a single stone and is the second-large

Chapter 5: Revisiting ‘Brutalist’ Architecture

Brutalist architecture was the offspring of a school of thought that, in accordance with its own interpretation, sought to rid structures of their pointless intricacies, embellishments, extraneous decorations, and coverings by using a variety of concealing materials and finishes that hid the building's fundamental structure and character. This is acknowledged as a distinct branch of modern

Chapter 6 : Statue of Unity

Introduction •    The Statue of Unity honours the life of Sardar Patel, a symbol of cooperation and statesmanship. The world's tallest statue is situated 3.2 kilometres distant, opposite the Sardar Sarovar Dam, in a breathtakingly beautiful setting. •    This enormous statue is located on the isle of Sadhu-Bet in the River Narmada in the Indian state

Chapter 2 :  Geoscientific  Explorations

Introduction •    The leading geoscience organisation engaged in mineral exploration in India since its founding in 1851 is the Geological Survey of India (GSI). The GSI's baseline geoscience data collection serves as the foundation for further mineral exploration, which results in mineral discoveries. •    The development of the mining sector is clo


Introduction •    836 islands, islets, and rocky outcrops make up the 800 km long Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. Approximately 100 million years ago, during the Upper Mesozoic Period, geological upheaval caused these Islands to become isolated from the Asian landmass. •    These islands' chains, which span an area of 8,249 km2, are actually the cam

Waorani community

Waorani community     The Huaorani, Waorani, or Waodani, also known as the Waos, are an Indigenous people from the Amazonian Region of Ecuador. They comprise almost 4,000 inhabitants and speak the Huaorani language. Their language is distinct and unrelated to any other known tongue, including Quechua, which is commonly spoken in

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